In ancient history there have been many great leaders who had saved the Roman Empire from destruction and demise. The leaders and heroes of the Roman Empire are countless, but one leader stands out from all the rest. Augustus Caesar’s contributions to Roman history helped make Rome the dominant empire we know of today. Augustus Caesar was without a question the greatest political leader in the history of the Roman Empire.
After a century of civil wars and wide-spread fear and chaos, a new and promising leader arose, who, despite his comparably humble origins was soon to be called Augustus, the revered one, by the Senators. This once, dominant body placed hope in this single man and bestowed numerable honours upon him, concentrating the power of patronage and promotion through which he eventually outranked all the other Senators in the state.
With the coming into view of the second settle. Augustus was granted the power of Maius Imperium which allowed him unlimited dmilitary control. He than was granted of civil authority. This allowed him the ability to do law making, the power to call for the senate, the ability to make the first movement at any meeting over representatives of a country and most importantly - he has sacrosanct (Place or too important) and untouchable. This meant that Augustus was free from prosecution, and was extremely clean protection for him. Uncoincidentally, Augustus has did not talk about or say his Maius Imperium throughout the Res Gestae. This was done so to maintain Augustus image as ruler for the people, by people, calming them his powers were not treated or used in a very mean, unfair way. While his statement does not point to or show the basis of his
He preserved all of the traditional offices while slowly taking many of the offices for him self. He was both consul and tribune. Commander and chief of the military and the senate also gave him direct control of many provinces, these provinces supplied men for his armies and food for them also, not to the senate. Augustus knew the importance of religion in roman society, he then named himself pontifex maximus which means supreme priest. He encourages the construction of temples dedicated to Rome and Augustus. None of these innovations in his ruling method altered the Roman constitution. The laws he did change however were the laws of the provinces of Rome which made them more romanized, so Augustus could be open about his actions so the senate would not bring him down and be with him. The Romans had a strong sense of there traditions and were fascinated by there history they loved when they could point out how the gods operated in there empire and allowed them much conquest of the western world. Before Augustus it looked for the romans as if the gods had left them, for they killed each other in revolutions and civil wars. Augustus’s many military victories and expansion of the empire through land and a political sense, show that the gods where on his side. He glorified Rome by hiring painters, sculptures, architects, and painters to design and build beautiful structures. He has paved the way for future Roman emperors to come.
Augustus was born as Gaius Octavius on September 23, 63 B.C. (Richardson 4). Showing promise as young man, his great uncle, Julius Caesar, took special interest in him, giving him jobs and experience in the political world. Caesar eventually developed a relationship so close with him that he considered Octavius his adopted son (Shotter, Ch. 2). When Caesar was assassinated on the Ides of March, his murderers, Brutus and Cassius, “had no plans for the future other than believing that the death of the tyrant would automatically lead to the Restorations of the Republic,” and instead “plunged Rome into a fresh round of civil conflict for thirteen more years” (Shotter Ch. 2; Bentley et al. 223). This problem set up the need for a political figure to fix these
Augustus came into sole power after defeating Marc Antony and Cleopatra in the Battle of Actium. He exclaims that he wants to “retain the form but change the substance,” of the republic government. Some historians debate whether he was a power-hungry dictator or if he in fact had plans to work towards empowering and expanding the Roman empire. During his reign, he makes it so that he is the sole leader of Rome, and essentially assuming the role of an emperor but not technically an “emperor.” He removes the law that places a ten year waiting period between running for consul again, which we then see this lead to the senate giving him judicial power. For this reason, some people feel as though he was working for his personal ambition to achieve complete control.
Augustus first came to power after many years of bloodshed and civil war, and the Roman people longed for peace and the stabilization of society. It will be shown that Augustus achieved this goal through a series of religious, moral, and political reforms, and in doing so, legitimized and strengthened his own position in the transition from republic to empire.
In order to fully comprehend and absorb Augustus and his era, it is of importance to succinctly appreciate the nature of the Roman crisis and, in particular, the role Julius Caesar played. The Senate was in control of the Republic. They did not have a written constitution, but rather practices agreed upon decisions that were completely grounded on tradition. They contained the parameters of what behaviour was considered more acceptable than the other. Near the end of the second century BC, political and military leaders started to push the boundaries of what was considered acceptable by tradition, and set new ones. The Republic was no longer functioning adequately. Violence and intimidation were at the root of these new behaviours. It would
To what extent was Augustus ' achievement of power a continuation of the phenomenon we have been examining throughout this course? How was Augustus different? By the time of his death in AD 14, what had changed since the epoch of Scipio Aemilianus?
Augustus, during his reign as emperor proved effective in ruling through the ideas he implemented to solidify his country. Tacitus stated “nullo adversante” which translates into English “Wholly unopposed” (http://janusquirinus.org/Quotes/QuotesHome.html) this identifies the effectiveness of his reign and the strength he had politically over Rome. Important actions such as the creation of religious and moral reforms, the constitutional agreement and the implementation of the building programme all succeeded in creating stability within the Roman Empire.
The Roman's executive branch, had two consuls and they were elected by the assembly for one year to be the chief executives of the government and the commanders-in-chief of the army. In the judicial branch, the Praetors and the eight judges are chosen for one year by the Centuriate Assembly. Both the Praetor and the eight judges oversee the civil and criminal courts. To become a citizens you have to be an adult male landowner. The citizens had the right to vote, to make legal contracts, to have a lawful marriage, and to have a trial. A common citizen would vote to elect tribunes and to make laws. The Romans had the Twelve Tablets which, were a list of rules that was the basis of the Roman legal system. The laws in the Twelve Tablets talked about property, crime, family, theft, and inheritance.
In 23 B.C., he became so ill that he almost died. He turned in the consulship that was granted to him by the Senate, and to his surprise was given the powers of a tribune for life. These powers allowed him to call meetings of the Senate and veto any agreements they came to. This power went on for four years until he was granted consulship for life. His power was equal with the highest political figures in Rome, and he had even greater power in the provinces that he ruled. In 12 B.C., Lepidus, who was the pontifex maximus or head of Roman religion, died. Augustus took his position and became the pontifex
In the year 63 B.C Augustus became the first emperor of Rome, after the assassination of his adoptive father Julius Caesar in 44 B.C. Augustus raised an army at the age of 19 to overthrow the tyrant leader Mark Antony, whom gained power of Rome after the assassination of Julius Caesar. After overthrowing the tyrannical system, Augustus liberated his father, and was offered dictatorship by the people of Rome. Augustus rejected the title of dictator on more than one occasion; he instead titled himself princeps civitatis: the first among citizens. In his reign Augustus completed many building projects, including the repair and rebuilding of aqueducts, roads, and sewers that had been neglected over time. The expansion of the Roman Empire under Augustus was extensive, stretching from Egypt to Spain including
On the 23rd of September 63BC a baby boy was born. Little did his family know that this amazing child was going to be one of the greatest politicians in Rome, he was also going to touch the lives of many Roman Citizens and to be remembered by thousands of people many years after his death. He was to rule an empire that stretched from Spain to Judea. Turn the Mediterranean Sea into a peaceful Roman Lake and was eventually to be worshipped as a god. The future Emperor of Rome was called Gaius Julius Octavious, whom we all know now as Augustus.