Austim Spectrum Disorder

1637 Words7 Pages
INTRODUCTION Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that have overlapping diagnostic criteria related to deficits in communication, and restricted interests and repetitive behaviour, Duffy and Healy ( as cited in Worley & Matson, 2012). Recent studies in the United States reported the diagnosis of an ASD in 1 out of 91 children of between age three to seventeen years (Kogan et al., 2009) and 1 out of 110 children age eight years (Rice, Baio, Van, Doernberg, Meaney & Kirby, 2007). Idro, Newton, Kiguli and Mwesige, (2010) found the prevalence of mental handicap, severe developmental/cognitive delay or regress in East Africa to be 17.0% while general behaviour problems was 3.9%. Jarbrink and Knapp (2001) note that ASDs requires management throughout an individual’s life, with no specific cure; this results in high costs of interventions. This presents specific sets of challenges to caregivers especially in resource strained settings. Several studies have shown that parents of children with developmental disabilities experience heightened stress (Blacher, 1984; Schieve, Blumberg, Rice, Visser and Boyle, 2007), impaired mental health (Weiss, 1991), a sense of devaluation and self-blame (Holroyd, Brown, Wikler & Simmons, 1975), and impaired physical functioning, tiredness and exhaustion (Hedov, Anneren & Wikblad, 2000; Emerson, 2003). While acknowledging the changing gender roles, Gray and Holden ( as cited by Leonard, Seltzer, Shattuck,
Open Document