Australia was first claimed by Captain Cook in early 1770, but it wasn’t settled until 1788 when the first fleet of 11 ships arrived at Botany Bay, carrying 1,530 passengers - mostly convicts, as well as some marines and officers. They moved to Port Jackson to begin establishing a settlement. Specific prisoners were chosen for the trip, the ones with skills in building, farming and other things that would have been useful to create a “liveable” environment for the new inhabitants. The first “free” settlers only arrived in 1793, thus beginning the colonisation of New South Wales.
Since British arrival, Aboriginal people have experienced marginalisation and extreme disadvantage within Australian society. Urban-based Aboriginal people, even more than those living in remote communities, have been subject to the impact of racism and discrimination on self-identity. Nonetheless, many urban-based Aboriginal people proudly identify with their Aboriginality, asserting their identity. In this case study, I will examine the identity of Aboriginal Australian’s, comparing this construction from the time period of colonisation in Australia to the current time period in Australia. Perhaps the most salient features of this construction are the impact of Australian colonisation, along with the effects of the Stolen Generation.
The first fleet arrived at Botany Bay on the 18th of January 1788 which was later declared as an official prison. The Captain of the fleet, Captain Phillips however found out that the harbour was in lack of fresh water therefore was unsuitable for conviction. The fleet then redirected to Port Jackson which then marked the official first European landing on Sydney Harbour.
Human rights are the rights of humans, regardless of nationality, gender, race, or religion. We should all have this in common as we are all part of humanity. However, Indigenous people did not always have these rights (Ag.gov.au, 2015). Aside from basic human rights, Indigenous people also have their own rights specific to their culture. Before 1967, Indigenous people had different rights in different states and the Australian federal government did not have any jurisdiction over Aboriginal affairs until Australia’s constitution was amended for this purpose in 1967 (Moadoph.gov.au, 2015). Between 1900 and the present time, there have been significant changes to the rights of Indigenous Australians. The effects of the European Settlement on the Indigenous people of Australia have been devastating. When white people began arriving in Australia, the Aboriginal people believed them to be ghosts of ancestor spirits. However, once they realised the settlers were invading their land, the Aborigines became, understandably, hostile (Slater & Parish, 1999, pp.8-11). In 1788, the total Indigenous population was believed to be between 750,000 and one million. By 1888, the Indigenous population was reduced to around 80,000 Australia wide (Korff, 2014). The three main reasons for this dramatic decline were the introduction of new diseases, violent conflicts with the colonisers, and settlers acquiring Indigenous land (Digital, 2015). In 1848, the Board of National Education stated that it
identify and discuss the local Indigenous Australian people of the land on which the student lives/works/or studies. (live)
Australia in the early 1900s has developed a reputation as a ‘working man’s paradise’ for its greater opportunity to success and an egalitarian society. However not all workers proved this to be true. In order to determine this statement, Issues to be discussed include firstly the hours of work for different genders, secondly the working conditions and finally the dispute for the right to fair treatment to women and Aboriginal natives throughout the 19th century.
* This allowance was the equivalent to two weeks' wages for an unskilled worker at the time.
For my first event I took a friend to a movie night hosted by the Notre Dame Student Association and students from the Aboriginal People unit. They organised a free viewing a movie by John Pilger called Utopia and a follow up survey. This extraordinary film gives a deep insight into the First Australians struggles of harsh dispossession and the ongoing deaths and poverty. Pilger puts the hard word on many members of the Australian government who are responsible for many deaths, explorations, betrayals and breaches to Aboriginal peoples human rights. This film was very moving and had a great impact on myself who had already studied a lot of this content but seeing it again in a different way opened my eyes even more to the sadness and grief suffered by Aboriginal people due to discrimination and lack of justice. As for my friend she was greatly saddened and shocked by what she has seen. Coming from a very English background she expressed feeling somewhat guilty about what had happened and how disappointed she was in the Australian government on this matter. The movie inspired a lengthy conversation about the importance of righting past wrongs for Aboriginal people and spreading awareness to her family and friends. It was also interesting to discover that when moving to Australian from England in 2010 that she had noticed a great deal of racism towards
As a future educator, it will be my job to continue acknowledging, valuing and teaching Indigenous origins, histories and cultures using the Australian Institute for Teaching and School (AITSL) standard 2.4 and the Australian Curriculum. This will give my future students a better understanding that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were the first custodians of our Australian land and of their origins. They lived in Australia 60,000 years before the British settled in 1788. I will teach an Australian historical time line prior to 1788.
Colonialism in Australia places a detrimental threat to the health of Indigenous Australians. Inherent in colonialism were scientific racisms, institutional racism and structural violence. These factors continues to persist in the fabric of Australian society today and limits the life chances of Indigenous Australians. This essay illuminates colonialism as a major contributor to the social marginalisation and low socioeconomic status experienced by indigenous Australian. An analysis of Aboriginal infant mortality rate, a health indicator highlights the difference between biomedical and sociological approach and the embedded negative impact of social marginalisation and low socioeconomic status on the health of Indigenous Australians. The
Noel Pearson’s speech ‘an Australian history for us all’ discusses his approach to trying to solve some of the most systemic problems facing Australian Aboriginals today. The speakers are successful in understanding the ideas and values of the speech. Through the uses of various language techniques and context, Pearson’s speech details the struggles of the relationship between the first European settlers and Aboriginal Australians.
The Social Work professional would benefit from completing SCS130 because they would gain insight into the impact of British colonialism on Indigenous Australians and how the laws of control and protection forced them to become dependent, this, enables an understanding in terms of the present situation of disadvantage. Hollinsworth (2008) maintains that the historical impact of colonisation by Europeans on Indigenous Australians, is the basis for contemporary racism in Australia (pp. 35,67,77,79-80,83-84,97). This is supported by, The Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody (1991) report, which, highlights the impact of European settlement on the dispossession and institutional racism of Indigenous peoples. This racist ideology is based on the belief of superiority of the dominant group, in Australia this was enforced by racist legislation (Hollinsworth 2008, p. 47,77,79-80,97). Australia does have a racist history and as a consequence, these racist ideologies still exist today. This has resulted in Indigenous Australians experiencing racism through the oppressive effects of marginalisation in political, economic and social structures (Hollinsworth 2008, p.9,14,20,38,83-84,100). Therefore, it is imperative to the Social Work profession to complete a course such as SCS130 to enable comprehension of the present disadvantage experienced by Indigenous Australians in the context of the impact of European settlement.
In a recent article published in The Conversation, Norris (2014) noted the importance of educating students about Aboriginal perspectives. He stated this would enable all Australians to understand and value Aboriginal intellectual and scientific achievements. By encouraging others to celebrate the significant contributions Aboriginal Peoples have made to development in science, Norris is helping to move Australia towards being a society that acknowledges and respects the culture of their Indigenous
Colonisation in Australia is followed by 5 steps, according to Professor Virgillio Enriquez. Step 1, includes the denial of culture within the indigenous society. This first step to this process of colonisation, also gives perspectives on the way colonisers display ignorance upon different cultures. This initial step also includes the gradual withdrawal of cultural practices, as indigenous people may develop close relationships with the colonised strangers and eventually adapt to their culture. Due to the advanced culture of the colonisers, some may become converted and eventually turn against their original culture. With the denial of indigenous culture, step 2 of colonisation was invoked, with the destruction of anything representing their
New Zealand had often been regarded within the global community as an idyllic island paradise with very little national troubles. While the former may be true, the British colonization of new Zealand in 1841 created many problems between the british settlers and the indigenous Maori. Many of these grievances have yet to be reconciled with numerous social issues still facing urban Maori today. While is new Zealand still coming to terms with its biculturalism and addressing the issues surrounding that, the Chinese community are fighting for their place within a multicultural new Zealand after a 140 year history within the country.