Essay on Australian Wine

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Wine it is a fundamental component of many Australian’s day to day life, being closely related with both business and pleasure. Whether it be a quiet drink on a Friday night to a career in wine manufacturing, wine affects the lives of many daily. Not only does wine affect the individuals of Australia, it forms a lucrative industry, employing 28000 people in both winemaking and grape growing (2006 Census of Australia), with Australia being ranked consistently as one of the top ten wine producers in the world. Wine production is a growing industry, with exports totalling $2.87 billion in 2006-2007 an increase of 4.4 percent over the previous year. Annually, Australia produces 1.4 billion litres of wine (Australian Government, 2010). …show more content…
Fermentation is a process that has two distinct phases, these being; primary and secondary fermentation. Primary fermentation focuses on the addition of yeast to crushed grapes. The yeasts multiply, via asexual reproduction, enabling the sugars found in grapes; glucose and fructose, to convert into ethanol and carbon dioxide (author unknown, 2005), as seen below:
Glucose  Ethanol + Carbon Dioxide + Energy
C6H12O6  2CH3CH2OH + 2CO2 + Energy
Figure 2: equation for the fermentation process
Author Unknown, 2010

Therefore the greater the amount of sugar added to the grape juice (before fermentation), the greater the alcohol content at the end of the process. The carbon dioxide produced is released into the atmosphere, whereas the ethanol is harnessed into the mixture.

After the wine has undergone primary fermentation, secondary fermentation begins. During secondary fermentation, the wine is sealed into an air-tight container, prohibiting the entry of any new sources of oxygen. This stage of fermentation occurs much more slowly and allows the wine to further improve its general flavour and aroma. This allows yeast to concentrate on fermenting over reproducing as oxygen is no longer available. The yeasts will stop fermenting, once the alcohol content of the wine reaches a concentration of fourteen percent. This is because the yeasts can no longer survive in

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