Figures released by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) in 2000, show that the decline in Australian union membership continues, despite the efforts of the Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU), to stop the slide. The ABS reports that trade union membership has dropped to 28 percent of the total workforce, compared to 1992, where there was 40 percent. (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2000.)
The submissions of the Australian Federal Government that the Workplace Relations Act 1996, amended by the Workplace Relations Amendment (Work Choices) Act 2005 was constitutionally valid prevailed with a majority of 5:2 by the High Court of Australia.1 This High Court decision inaugurated a shift of legislative power from the States to the Commonwealth.2 Since officially coming into effect as of 27 March 2006, the Work Choices Act has been the most comprehensive reformation in Australia in nearly a century, constantly sparking matters of controversy. 3
Social Legislation at the turn of the twentieth century made Australia a more reformed and progressive nation as a whole. Social Legislation was the result of Federation and made Australia more developed compared to other countries as their identity was stronger and Australia had a high standard of living at the time. Social legislation had three main acts which were Harvester Judgement (1907), Invalid and Old Age Pensions (1908) and Maternity Allowance (1912), these schemes mainly benefited white Australians.
When you think of the “land down under” you don’t really think of the kind of government they have. I chose to write about the Australian government because I really don’t hear much about Australia. It currently has a pretty interesting story to tell when it comes to their government. I became a bit interested in Australian politics when I saw a political animated cartoon on the internet that depicted Kevin Rudd, the last Prime Minister, on a news television show and it was quite humorous. I am going to give a quick history lesson on Australia then go into how the government formed and came to be. Then I will talk about the Australian constitution, the Australian arms of government, their federal system, political parties and Australia’s
In order to create Australia’s image as a working man’s paradise, workers gained rights to speak. The first of these issues to be discussed are the hours of work. The balanced working time of eight-hour day movement was introduced in the mid 19th century. It was conducted by trade unions for the right of shorter working hours suitable Australia’s harsh climate. This fairer working condition of eight-hour day has succeeded by the end of the century, when the government introduced fairer laws in the late 1890s which attempted to reduce working hours and give workers Saturday afternoon off. This achievement established a national standard that was aspired by the rest of the world and formed the basis of Australia’s reputation as a ‘working man’s paradise’.
Initially, the intent of labor unions was for employed workers to meet together and collectively agree on fundamental workplace objectives and goals. The rise of the union came about after the Civil War, in the United States- responding to the industrial economy boom. Following the war, labor unions finally reached public popularity within the 1930-1950’s, and then again began to slowly decrease, through the 1960’s and on to today’s times. Although, the popularity of labor unions has decreased, its importance remains to be evident with politics, journalism, auto, and the public education industries.
At the beginning of the twentieth century there were many labour disputes. The role of trade unions, the limits of managers, and government involvement were major conflicts in the labour market. Firms usually did not want to negotiate with unions at all. Different unions fought with each other constantly over the goals of the labour movement and their right to organize different kinds of workers. Governments designed labour structures that reduced the number of, length of, and violence involved with
The Fair Work Commission (FWC) in Australia along modern awards and employment contracts, has the power to control employee wages and conditions. Wages are the price paid to the labour force for its contributions in the production process. The FWC regulates if the National Employment Standards and enterprise agreements are met under the Fair Work Act (2009). Modern awards and employment contracts are arranged for the remaining individuals in order to determine their wages and conditions. Wages are also determined through the government implementation of price floors and also the supply and demand. Consequences are implemented by the FWC if Australia companies are found to have contravened the Fair Work Act (2009), one recent Australian company that was found to have infringed this legislation was Coles.
The labor union movement over the years has shaped the way individuals work and live for both the nicest and unpleasant. Some would think the unions influence has created a power struggle between management and union leaders. In today’s time, some citizens insist the existence of unions are a must to aid in employee freedom, while others view the labor unions as just another problem in the line of progress. The purpose of labor unions was for employed workers to come together and collectively agree on fundamental workplace objectives. The rise of the union came about after the Civil War- responding to the industrial economy. Surprisingly at the least unions became popular within the 1930-50’s and began to slowly decrease,
Australia is a two tiered system including a private and public sector. Medicare is a universal health insurance scheme under the public system. It was introduced on the 1st of February 1984 by the Australian Labor party the principal is for all Australian to have equal access to health. There are three levels of government these include Local, State or territory and Federal, all three have different roles to perform in terms of health care. The local government is responsible for towns and districts, moreover, local councils or shires function is to operate systems and projects such as sewage, garbage disposals and maintenance of the safety food standard. Both state and federal direct different parts of Medicare. State government manages public hospital within their territory or state, the state government receives 40%-50% of the total cost of expenditures for the public hospital from the Federal government. Lastly, Federal role includes payments to primary health services there include GPs, the majority of nurses, medical specialists and allied health professionals. In 1996 Budget guaranteed the renewal of private health insurance.
While the world has unanimously advanced and is more accepting of change, the workplace continues to be a place of discrimination, prejudice and inequality. Discrimination is broadly defined to ‘distinguish unfavourably’, isolate; and is context based (Pagura, 2012). Abrahams (1991) described the workplace as an ‘inhospitable place’ where gender disparity and wage gaps persist (Stamarski & Son Hing, 2015). Among other states and countries, the Australian government actively implements and passes laws to protect and maintain equal employment rights. While the objective of these laws is ‘to eliminate discrimination,’ the regulatory mechanisms in the legislation are largely ineffective at achieving this ultimate goal (Smith, 2008). However,
A union is an organization of workers who join together in order to have a voice in improving their jobs and the quality of work within the organization. In many occasions, unions help employees of an organization negotiate pay, benefits, flexible hours and other work conditions that may arise. Unions have a role because some degree of conflict is inevitable between workers and management (Noe, 2003). In this paper, I will be discussing the impact of unions and labor relations within an organization.
Despite the fact that the Equal Pay Act has been law since 1963, many problems inevitably arise in the administration of equal pay laws (Fisher). It has been estimated that at this current slow rate of progression in closing the gender pay gap it will be 2068 by the time men and women’s wages are equalized. It is clear that the business case, as well as the legislative case, has a significant role to play (Commission Policy Report).
Globalization has led to greater inequality in Australia. It could be due to increased trade and growth, and capital liberalization doesn't work in favor of the poor. Governments are supposed to reduce the negative financial market positions and not impose any such policies that would enhance those situations. Instability can cause deterrents for both firms and governments in the same manner. Interest rates being on a rise can reduce investment and a volatile currency will discourage exporters, especially the smaller firms that do not have any financial expertise to guide them. Expansionary policies will also be affected as the cost of borrowing increases. And these pressures on the government demand that it lower taxes and increase incomes, at the same time cutting the government's own spending patterns,