Autistic spectrum condition is a lifelong disability which affects how an individual communicates and relates to, other people. The understanding of autism has greatly improved since the 1940s when it was identified and one thing that we are aware of is that there is no cure however, there are many things that can be done to support people with autism. There are a large number of symptoms that are in relation to autism, such as a delay in speech development, not responding when their name is called and despite being able to hear, being intolerant of others entering their personal space. In addition to these, there are behavioural symptoms such as insisting on a familiar routine and becoming very anxious or upset if this is disrupted or changed, they will sometime talk at people rather than having a two-way conversation and a failure to understand or implement social rules.
Many treatment approaches have developed different ways of dealing with the challenges of autism. First, there is the theory of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA), which consists of giving a child a specific task, which teaches skills from basic ones to more complex ones, such as social interaction. Children taking this approach, work 30-40 hours a week with a trained professional. (West 66) It may be emotionally difficult for the child, and his/her parents to dedicate so much time, yet it is worth it. However, it has been proven that ABA methods have shown consistent results in teaching new skills and behaviors to children with autism. (West 68)
Autism is a rare disease that can be characterized by a “neurodevelopmental disorder categorized by the inability to relate to and perceive the environment in the realistic manner.” (Anthes, 1997) The signs of autism are mainly found in infants to young children usually between the ages of newborn to two years. The main symptoms that are discussed are “impairment in social interaction fixation of inanimate objects, inability to communicate normally, and resistance to changes in their daily routine.” (Anthes, 1997) Autism is a very understood disease but one thing most people do not know is that autism not only effects a child’s life mentally and physically, it also effects their social ability to have friends, play normally and even grow up
Autism spectrum disorders are a class of developmental disorders that impair social skills, behavior, and communication (Center for Disease Control). ASDs are considered ‘spectrum’ disorders because each patient has a unique experience in the nature and severity of their symptoms (Center for Disease Control). Under the umbrella of ASDs, there are three types of disorders, including Autistic disorder, Asperger Syndrome, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (Center for Disease Control). Autistic disorder is the most severe of the three, and patients exhibit significant problems with language, communication, and behavior (Center for Disease Control). Furthermore, people with Autistic disorder often have some intellectual impairment (Center for Disease Control). Asperger Syndrome is a milder form of autistic disorder where patients have some developmental delays, but their language and intellect are not affected (Center for Disease Control). The mildest of the ASDs is the pervasive developmental disorder. These patients usually don’t meet all of the criteria for autistic disorder, but do show some signs of social and communication problems (Center for Disease Control). The number of children diagnosed with ASD is growing, and currently 1 in 88 children fall somewhere on the spectrum (Mari-Bauset et al., 2013). Boys are four times more likely than girls to have autism, and while the exact cause of these disorders is unknown, both genetic and
Autism Spectrum Disorder has a wide variety of treatment choices. There is not a single treatment that will cure ASD, but there are many therapies that can be used to help the symptoms of ASD. Above are multiple different therapies that experts have conducted research on. Interviews of educators in the field of special education and surveys answered by the general public were conducted to gather information regarding ASD knowledge and therapies. Educators informed about even more therapies that are used within schools. It became apparent that many therapies are used for children with ASD, and this is because autism is a spectrum disorder. The word "spectrum" often measures as something that ranges. ASD ranges for
Many of us have heard about Autism, also knows as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Some have a family member, a friend, or know someone who has ASD. Increasingly it is becoming a more common disability. “Autism is one of the fastest-growing developmental disorders in the U.S” (Autism Speaks). Autism has no respect for gender, race, social class and or ethnicity. “Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder that involves abnormal development and function of the brain.” (Autism Center of Excellence) People who have autism have a lot of difficulties with social skills, communication and also will develop behavior issues. These behavior problems of an individual with autism can vary at times and can go from mild to severe. According to the Autism Science Foundation it says,” Many people with the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) also have unusual ways of learning, paying attention, and reacting to different sensations. The thinking and learning abilities of people with ASD can vary—from gifted to severely challenged.” The causes and symptoms, as well as the diagnosis, and the treatments of autism vary.
In this paper, I will be discussing the disorder of Autism, a sever disorder that affects the function of the brain. It causes problems in such areas as social contact, intelligence, language and speech impediments, along with ritualistic or compulsive behaviors, as well as different responses to the environment that an autistic individual may have different than individuals not having autism would exhibit. I will be discussing generally about the history and description of autism. Also I will be discussing the charactistics that mark an autistic individual, the actual treatment that an autistic person may receive, risk factors that an autistic person may encounter, and interventions/treatments activities that an individual who has autism may take part in. I feel that by doing all of this that I will gain a greater sense of understanding for individuals with autism. I will be giving this information to you by going through each topic that I have outlined in the introduction and explaining what each means and how they affect an individual with autism.
Over the years, more people are becoming aware of Autism Spectrum Disorder, ASD. The growing number of individuals who are affected by ASD have been increasing over the years. This could be do to the new DSM development of what is considered ASD or simply more children are being born with ASD. Either way, ASD is more predominate in our society today. ASD is defined in the DSM 5 as having abnormal social aspects, lack of social skills, non-verbal communications skills, deficits in development, lack of understanding of relationships, and self-stimulation through repetitive behaviors (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Although these are not all of the symptoms caused by ASD
Autism disorder is an issue facing many people today. It’s an issue widely discussed in the news and social media. In Gale’s data from 2015 defines autism as a general term for a group of complex disorders of the brain development that are grouped together under the broader term of autism spectrum disorder also known as ASD. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), as of 2014, about 1 in 68 out of 1,000 children were diagnosed with ASD. This was a dramatic increase from 1 in 150 children in 1992. The CDC also
Every year one in 68 Americans is diagnosed with autism. There are more than 3.5 million Americans living with an autism spectrum disorder (Autism Society), which makes it the fastest growing developmental disorder in the United States, hence the significant amount of studies being done to explore its characteristics and find solutions. Autism, also known as ASD, is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that is categorized by dysfunctions in social situations, communications, constrained interests, and repetitive stereotypic behaviors (Siniscalco et al). These behaviors can range from mild to very severe, and may be accompanied with other disorders. Autism can be diagnosed during early childhood, while symptoms begin to show during the first
In this book, “Helping children with autism learn: Treatment approaches for parents and professionals” Siegel gives parents of autistic children what they need most: hope. Siegel explains that how to take an inventory of a child particular disabilities that break down the various kinds unique to autism. Many other signs and symptoms are also seen in a child suffering from autism are atypical eating, lack of intuition and less attention to social stimuli. This book has been a great help in the research as it explains about the key understanding of each autism case as a discrete set of learning disabilities, each of which must be treated individually. This book is relevant to my research as it has important documentation and papers about the conference. It provides a detailed account of the issues, at the same time, Siegel offer a new understanding and a practical, thoughtful approach that will give parents a new hope.
The spectrum for autism disorders can be depicted as a scale, with end points ranging from mild to severe. Picturing an umbrella shaped scale that portrays the severity of symptoms, whether their deficits are cognitive, social, or of language; individuals diagnosed with autism or similar disorders fall into a comprehensive term of autism spectrum disorders (Hallahan et. al, 2015, p. 211).
There is a wide range and much controversy surrounding the study and overall effectiveness of different interventions for children and adolescents possessing a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, regardless of the method of intervention, every intervention shares the common goal which focuses on improving functioning in one or a combination of the following areas: social, communication, behavior, and academic. Social functioning includes interaction with peers and others, engagement and appropriate participation in activities, while communication refers to goals of “effectively signaling information to a social partner” i.e. utilizing and recognizing aspects of communication such as requesting, labeling, expressive language, speech, pragmatics, etc. (Missouri Autism Guidelines Initiative, 2012). With respect to the behavioral domain of treatment, effective intervention seeks to result in an increase of individuals engaging in the positive, adaptive skills to respond to a situation, person, or environment. Finally academic refers to skills that are required for success with school activities (Missouri Autism Guidelines Initiative, 2012). Focus in these areas of functioning assists in guiding treatment goals and provides a guideline of what to measure in order to gauge the effectiveness of treatment.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is known as a neurodevelopmental disorder that is capable of weakening communication, behavior and socialization. The term ASD includes three major subtypes which is Autism Spectrum Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder and Asperger’s Disorder. About 9.0 in 1000 children have ASD and certain types of autism might not be identified until three years of life. The probability of boys being diagnosed is higher compared to girls (Bravaccio et al. 2013). Autism is not curable, but it can be controlled using certain type of treatments as there is no specific or one treatment for autism. The question that arises for this literature review, if the treatment used for autism is effective?