The term autism was first used by psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler in 1908. He used it to describe one of his patients that had schizophrenia. He used it to describe his patient who had withdrawn into his own world. The pioneers of the study of ASDs were Leo Kanner and Hans Asperger. They both worked separately and studied different children. In their research, both of their studies showed that the children that they were studying showed similar characteristics. Both Kanner’s and Asperger’s children had problems in social activity and were different from normal children in terms of fine motor skills. (Mandal)
Autism is a developmental disorder, which is characterized by a dyad of difficulties in a) communication and social interaction and b) restricted interests and imagination (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Individuals on the Autism Spectrum might find it challenging to understand what other people think or what the reasons for their behaviours are, as their ‘theory of mind’ may not be well developed (Schuwerk, Vuori & Sodian, 2015). It is possible that this is why they might behave in socially inappropriate ways, being unable to differentiate between different contexts, while they might also find it difficult to make friends. Moreover, it is likely that they are fond of routines, repetition and structure (Carnahan, Musti-Rao, & Bailey, 2009), as they might be nervous with unknown, new situations. In addition, some of them might not do eye contact with other people, whereas some others might not endure to be touched and might have a difficulty developing speech (Jordan, 2005). Individuals on the Autism Spectrum might sometimes be prohibited to initiate conversations and might struggle with finding different ways to play and behave, due to the possible deficit of imagination, which in some cases might result in them having a narrow sphere of interests. Nevertheless, it should be noted that this group of people is rather heterogeneous, as characteristics of autism may differ from one individual to another (Gwynette, 2013). Another point is that people with Autism
Autism is a form of neurodevelopment disorder in the autism spectrum disorders. It is characterized by impaired development in social interactions and communication, both verbal and non-verbal. There is an observed lack of spontaneous acts of communication; both receptive and expressed, as well as speech impairments. A person diagnosed with Autism will also show a limited range of activities and interests, as well as forming and maintain peer relationships. The individuals will display limited interests, which are often very focused and repetitive. He or she is likely to be very routine oriented and may show behavioral symptoms such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, aggressiveness, and self-injurious behaviors.
The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time is a mystery work of fiction by a British writer Mark Haddon, who was born on the 26th of September in Northampton, England in 1962, where he was brought up by an architect. Mark Haddon was educated at Uppingham School he
Eugen Blueler, a psychiatrist, was the first to introduce the name "Autism" but he diagnosed this disease to a schizophrenic adult. Leo Kanner distinguished the two later in order to clarify the understanding of the disability. (Forty-six)
Autism Research into Autism has grown enormously over the past 20 years due to growing awareness and the number of children and adults affected. In 1943, Leo Kanner first described the classic autistic syndrome. Since then, our knowledge and understanding in this area has broadened. In consequence, estimates of prevalence have increased considerably.
Asperger’s Syndrome and Instructional Intervention Asperger’s Syndrome (AS) is a pervasive developmental disability first identified in 1944 by Dr. Hans Asperger, an Austrian pediatrician. However, since his paper was written in German and published during World War II, his findings were not well known in the United States and in other non-German speaking countries. In 1981, Dr. Lorna Wing, a British researcher, brought AS to the attention of the English-speaking world. In addition to summarizing Asperger’s findings, she also pointed out the similarities between AS and autism, raising the question: Are they the same disorder or two separate ones (Ozonoff, Dawson, & McPartland, 2002)? It was not until 1994
Asperger’s disorder is also known as Asperger’s syndrome has been at the end of the autism spectrum and its own category for many years. Now over the last few years in the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-5 (DSM-V) it has combined two core deficit areas. They are impairments in social interaction and impairments in communication into a single domain of social/communication deficits. It subsumes Asperger’s disorder into a single diagnostic category of autism spectrum disorder. (TEXTBOOKp.237). It is estimated one percentage of the world’s population and over three million Americas are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. ( ).
In 1943, an American psychiatrist named Leo Kanner used the word “Autism” to describe the behavior of a group of children he studied (Mandal, 2014). Studies state that, “Leo Kanner systematically observed a small group of children with a condition he called Infantile Autism, launching the scientific study of autism” (Thompson, 2013, p. 81). The group of children Kanner examined in his studies displayed characteristics such as complications in social interactions, hardship with adjusting to changes in their day-to-day routines, and echolalia. In 1944, Hans Asperger also studied a group of children who shared similar characteristics with the group of children Kanner studied. However, the children Asperger studied did not have echolalia but generally struggled in the area of motor skills. Furthermore, the concept of the influence parenting skills has on Autism was studied and argued by psychologists Bruno Bettelheim and Bernard Rimland. Bettelheim suggested that cold behavior from mothers towards their children may be the cause of Autism and Rimland who was also a father of a child with Autism disagreed with Bettelheim’s statement. In the 1980’s, more people believed that parenting skills did not cause Autism
Autism was discovered 60 years ago it has been puzzling, fascinating and massively researched. In 2001 the University of Birmingham in collaboration with the West Midlands Autistic Society and the Autism Services Accreditation Programme initiated the journal Good Autism Practice. Along with many publications by parent organizations. While it was at first thought that autism might be an early form of childhood schizophrenia, by 1979 this idea was left and deserted. Schizophrenia is a long term mental disorder of a type involving a breakdown in the reaction between thought, emotion, and behavior, leading to inaccurate perception inappropriate actions delusion, and a sense of mental fragmentation. Changing the title and scope of the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder in 1979 its then editors, Eric Schopler, Michel Rutter and Stella Chess, Stressed Knner’s emphasis on developmental distortions in autism, the increasing evidence of links between autism and other developmental disorders, as well as the association of autism with specific medical conditions. The journal was from then and on concerned with a wider range of development issues to clarify the similarities and differences between the various distortions of the developmental process (Wolff, S. 2004).
Ashley Knowles Dr. Chaviano ESE 309 Spring 2015 Asperger Syndrome Asperger syndrome, also known as, Asperger disorder is a disorder on the autism spectrum. Asperger syndrome is on the mild, or “high-functioning,” end. Many affected with Asperger’s learn to adjust and become very intelligent and live successful lives. In 1944, an Australian pediatrician named Hans
1.2 Hans Asperger and Stereotypes of Autism In the 1940’s, Hans Asperger, an Austrian pediatrician, observed children with autistic-like behaviors and social and communication challenges. These kids had normal intelligence as well as normal language development. Asperger syndrome is a type of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). PDDs involve delays
Autism Spectrum Disorder and Genetics ASD stands for Autism Spectrum Disorder and since the early 1900’s; it has been a mystery to many researchers and psychologists. Autism is usually noticed in the first three years of life but there are many theories on which it comes about. Before the 1940s, children who showed signs of Autism Spectrum Disorder were labeled schizophrenic, emotionally disturbed, and psychotic (Kartemquin, 2008). Not until about 1943 did Leo Kranner give a clear definition for autism, by writing Autistic Disturbances of Effective Contact, describing his research of autism cases. The paper descriptively addresses the behaviors of the children, describing them as self- satisfied, showing no apparent affection for others, oblivious to their surroundings as if they live within themselves (Kranner, 1943). From this, many other scientists like Bruno Bettelheim pinpointed the main cause of autism as psychodynamic; meaning the mothers of autistic children were the root cause (PBS, 2002). This became known as the “Refrigerator Mother Theory.” Bettelheim stated that children with autism have an emotional disorder developed from psychological distress brought upon by their mothers (PBS, 2002). Previously, Bettelheim spent ten months in a Nazi concentration camp and wrote his book The Empty Fortress: Infantile Autism and the Birth of the Self. He stated his experience paralleled the experiences of autistic children, as if their parents were Nazi prison guards wanting
WORKS CITED Brennan, Dan, ed. "History of Autism." WEB MD. N.p., 19 May 2015. Web. 15 Feb. 2016. . Dr. Dan Brennan M.D. Reviewed the article History of Autism. It discusses from where it came and identifies to the first person to use the term “Autism.”
However, Autism was introduced in the 1940s autism was first described in the 1940s. Leo Kanner in the United States and Hans Asperger in Austria independently published papers describing children with severe social and communicative impairments. Both Kanner and Asperger used the term "autism" (meaning “alone”) to describe the syndromes they had identified. Kanner described children who had impoverished social relationships from early in life, employed deviant language, and were subject to behavioral stereotypies. Asperger’s description identified children with normal IQs and normal language development who suffered from social and some types of communicative impairments. (slaughter)