Autism Spectrum Disorders

784 WordsJan 29, 20183 Pages
Introduction Autism is the main form of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Autism is a developmental disorder that is manifested in problems with communication, impairment of social functioning, and repetitive behaviours. According to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), ASD diagnoses must meet four different areas of criteria. There are three symptoms of "deficits in social communication and interaction across contexts," four symptoms of "restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests, or activities," "symptoms must be present in early childhood," and the symptoms must "together limit and impair everyday functioning" (Carpenter, 2013). There are many theoretical positions on the causes of autism spectrum disorders. Some of which have been discounted by empirical studies that have been researched and performed. Theoretical Positions The search for the cause of autism and autism spectrum disorders began in the 1990's with Dr. Andrew Wakefield, a gastroenterologist from Britain. Dr. Wakefield's research linked autism to vaccines received in infancy and childhood through intestinal disease. The vaccine Dr. Wakefield primarily looked at was the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) triple vaccine. In 2004, most of the co-authors for the study withdrew their names after learning that Wakefield "had been paid by a law firm that intended to sue vaccine manufacturers" ("Retracted autism study," 2011). Wakefield's research

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