Autoimmune Case Study

Decent Essays
5. Please analyze the relationship between pathogenic infection and autoimmune diseases.
Autoimmunity occurs when the immune system recognizes and attacks host tissue. In addition to genetic factors,age , environmental triggers such as particular viruses, bacteria and other infectious pathogens play a major role in the development of autoimmune diseases.
Multiple arms of the immune system may be involved in autoimmune pathology. antigen-presenting cells (APCs) , major histocompatibility complex (MHC) ,Cytolytic T cells ,T helper cells release cytokines that can lead to direct effects or can activate macrophages, monocytes and B cells, Fc receptor.
There are multiple mechanisms by which host infection by a pathogen can lead to autoimmunity
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This kind of immune response to a persisting pathogen, or direct lysis by the persisting pathogen, causes damage to self-tissue and releases antigen from damaged tissue are taken up by APCs, and this initiates a self-specific immune response. ‘A domino effect can occur, where the non-specific activation of one arm of the immune system leads to the activation of other arms. infection may lead autoimmunity through the processing and presentation of ‘cryptic antigens’. In contrast to dominant antigenic determinants, subdominant cryptic antigens are normally invisible to the immune system. The inflammatory environment that arises after infection can induce increased protease production and differential processing of released self-epitopes by APCs.Bystander activation’ describes an indirect or non-specific activation of autoimmune cells caused by the inflammatory environment present during…show more content…
Because viral genome can be detected after infectious virus has been cleared from the heart, latent virus may attract inflammation during the chronic stage of disease. However, when we examined the heart for the presence of latent MCMV, we found that viral genome and transcript were present in mice both susceptible to and resistant to the development of chronic disease. These results indicate that persistence of virus alone is not the determining factor in the development of chronic myocarditis. Yet the best evidence that active viral infection is not required for myocarditis to develop comes from the demonstration that injecting susceptible mice with cardiac myosin emulsified in adjuvant induces experimental autoimmune myocarditis. In fact, the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune myocarditis closely resembles the biphasic myocarditis associated with CB3 or MCMV infection. This finding indicates that the adjuvant effect produced by infections or adjuvants
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