Sexual abuse is a heinous act that causes extreme suffering for a victim while providing pleasure for a perpetrator. According to the U.S. Department of Justice, approximately 1 in 6 boys and 1 in 4 girls are abused sexually before the age of 18 (n.d.). The question of why an individual would commit such a heinous act has various answers, almost all of which depend on the background of the individual. A common speculation is that abusers themselves were once abused by someone else. This idea branches off of the Positivist Theory of crime. The theory basically states that prior influences or experiences in life will ultimately decide how people will act in the future (C. Bartol & A. Bartol, 2017). Their history of abuse influenced them to become abusers. While this may be one viable explanation to this behavior, there are many other answers that are just as feasible in explaining this behavior. This includes the topic of serious mental illnesses and other behavioral disorders. Regardless of background influences, the true intent of the abusive individuals may be almost impossible to draw out, especially since most guilty individuals want to escape from the consequences associated with the crime that they commit (Inbau, Reid, Buckley, & Jayne, 2013). Unless a perpetrator admits to committing the crime, piecing the story together and understanding the influences that played a role in the actions committed by them is more feasible in terms of learning the truth. Whatever the
The purpose of sex offender treatment is to alter the deviant sexual arousal patterns, addressing social skills deficits that result in deviant behavior, to challenge the beliefs that facilitate sex-offending behavior, and to develop strategies to prevent sexual reoffending. To resolve the above mentioned problems involves the use of both medication and behavioral based treatment models. Medications that are used to decrease sexual deviant behavior include synthetic progesterone derivatives such as medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and cyproterone (CPA), luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist leuprolide acetate (LHRH), Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) (Fong, 2006; Dolan, 2009). Dolan
Furthering the belief that women cannot be violent, another major distinction between male and female sex offender typologies is the Male- Coerced or Male-Accompanied typology. This typology involves either a passive woman who abuses due to an abusive male partner or a male-female couple who both equally abuse (Vandiver & Kercher). There are many issues involved with these typologies. The first issue is that the male becomes primarily responsible for the abuse instead of the female. In the situation of a passive woman whose abusive partner forces her to abuse, the victims of the abuse are most often their own children.
The treatment process for sex offenders is a staid yet encouraging process that educates the offender on specific tactics for discontinuing offensive behavior, being held accountable and taking blame for actions they have committed (Stop it Now, 2016). For the preponderance of those adults who have committed a sexual offense, treatment considerably diminishes the risk of recidivism. However, it does not offer forgiveness or justify abusive actions, nor is treatment intended to chastise or embarrass participants. The primary focus of treatment is to help the offender create a better life for himself by helping him or her develop their strengths and manage their weaknesses (Stop it Now, 2016). Treatment for sex offenders are accessible by counselors or therapists who concentrate in working with adults as well as youth with sexual behavior
Sex offenders tend to blend in to society virtually unnoticed until they offend or reoffend (Polizzi, MacKenzie, & Hickman, 1999). Currently, there is a large group of mental health professionals representing a variety of disciplines, including psychology, psychiatry clinical social work, counseling, and medicine, that continue to believe in the potential efficacy of treating sex offenders. Over the past decade, the sex offender treatment field has grown rapidly and the treatment of juvenile sex offenders is on the rise (Parks & Bard, 2006). The rationale for treating juvenile offenders is based on research which indicates that inappropriate sexual behavior patterns develop early and a failure to intervene and change behavior early often means that the offender will continue to escalate his/her inappropriate behavior, which could present an even greater danger to society (Ayland & West, 2006). Vivian-Bryne, (2004) suggests that professionals who treat adult sex offenders report that offenders who are incarcerated will eventually return to the community and therefore, therapeutic measures should be taken to reduce the likelihood that they will reoffend even if those measures have not conclusively been identified as effective. Sexual offenders may find therapy valuable because it can allow them to retrace their upbringing to help them identify and understand the roots of their
Of all the violent crimes in America, sexual assault has become one of the fastest growing misconduct under this category. Of those found guilty of sexual offenses, 25% of them were juveniles. Of these offenses that occurred within adult offenders, 50% of them announced that their first offense happened during their pubescent stage (Martin, 2009). To get a hold of the increasing number of juvenile sex offenders, they are many opinion related solutions, other routes like treatment methods, and of course answers within legislation that could possibly reduce or prevent this issue directly. There are some concerns that have been brought to attention with regards to the psychological and behavioral modification treatments that is administered
There has been much debate about why people commit sexual crimes. As far as to what causes people to become sex offenders, there is no real answer to this question. No single factor can fully interpret why someone commits a sexual offense, though it is believed that some combination of factors may combine to increase sexual deviancy dramatically. These factors include biological, circumstantial, environmental, and sociocultural aspects of the person, describing the development of abnormal sexual expression through the same mechanisms by which conventional sexuality is also learned (Terry and Tallon). There are a number of sub-theories which have been designed to explain the onset of sexual deviancy. However, because no one can pinpoint the dynamics of sexual deviancy, different theories have been developed to study and account for the development of sexual aggression and behavior. An explanation of the main theories is offered below:
Aversive stimuli often includes vomit and paralysis-inducing substances, electric shock and odor producing substances like ammonia (Maletzky 1991). There are two variations of this technique. The first is called covert sensitization, which is a safer option that has been used. This technique involves the imagination of the stimuli’s versus actually experiencing them (Maletzsky). The other variation is called shame aversion therapy which involves the patient being forced into public humiliation to coincide with his/her deviant behavior (Langevin 1983). This has only been tested in uncontrolled studies and there was nothing consistent (Langevin 1983). There are three other methods that are used frequently, especially when offenders don’t take to the first two that were mentioned. The first is called masturbatory satiation, in which the goal is to reduce negative sexual attraction by pairing it with boredom. The patient is actually told to masturbate for up to an hour, while talking outload about his fantasy, and must continue even after an orgasm. The second method is called orgasmic reconditioning. This method involves the transfer of deviant arousal towards a normal
Sexual assault is one of the fastest growing violent crimes in America. Approximately 20% of all people charged with a sexual offense are juveniles. Among adult sex offenders, almost 50% report that their first offense occurred during their adolescence. (FBI, 1993) There are many different opinions, treatment options and legislation to manage the growing numbers of juvenile sex offenders. In today’s society the psychological and behavioral modification treatments used to manage juvenile sex offenders is also a growing concern. To understand and determine the proposed treatment methods, several related issues will need to be reviewed such as traditional sex offender therapy methods like cognitive therapy and alternative therapies like
Furthermore it is important to prevent sexual problems by paying attention to the emotional reactions, such as anger, shame, and guilt feelings. The issue of sexuality needs to be addressed during both the acute and long-term rehabilitation processes. Cognitive intervention may help to overcome these feelings and may minimize the risk of chronic
A full functional analysis of Leader X’s feeling, thoughts, events and behaviors both preceding and following his use of pornography will be conducted. As well as exploring the function that pornography is playing in his life. By doing this I will be able to determine what is causing Leader X to use pornography, for example if he is using it to escape stress or using it as a way to feel better about himself or even as a way to escape from a situation. Leader X will be taught stimulus control strategies which will involve destroying and removing all pornography he has and in addition to this he will be taught how to use imagery. By teaching Leader X imagery he will he will be equipped with a way to survive his urges to use pornography as well as learn that if he resists his urges they will subside.
The treatment for sexual offenders is done in a three principal approach which is cognitive behavioral approach, psycho-educational approach, and pharmacological approach. The cognitive behavioral approach gives emphasis on altering the habits of the offended relating toward sexual offending and “deviant patterns of arousal”. (CSOM) This means altering the daily habits of the offender which may be everything they had known previously to incarceration. The second principal of psycho-educational focuses on altering the offender’s state of mind toward their victims and attempts to instill the understanding of how they inflicted harm with their actions. With psychology there is never a set time on how long a set goal will be reached. Times vary between individuals and can sometime never reach their desired outcome. In conjunction with those previous principals the offenders are also treated under the pharmacological
In 2005, Lösel & Schmucker conducted a meta-analysis of sexual offender treatment. Featuring 69 studies containing 80 independent comparisons between treated and untreated offenders. treated offenders showed 37% less sexual recidivism compared to the control groups. Organic treatments such as
Transvetic disorder, based on the psychodynamics, it was due to the intense castration anxiety, thus via behavioral therapy in learning behaviors was effective way according to some behaviourists (Bowman and Engle, 1957). Behaviour therapy, was aimed to adopt psychotherapeutic measures to change aversive conditioning into desensitization. Through the behavioral learning, the deviant behaviours were able to be eliminated (Rachman, 1961). Aversion therapy was another treatment usually applied, however, it was found to be ineffective method after applied to transvestite patients (Davies and Morgenstern, 1960; Raymond, 1969).
“The aversion therapy is considered a type of psychological treatment, where patients will be exposed to different types of stimulus and at the same time it will experience some type of discomfort (Lieberman, 2012).”This treatment is based on the principles of classical conditioning; using classical conditioning to get rid of addictions or unwanted behaviours. Patient’s unwanted addiction is paired with a drug that makes them sick.