The inverse effects between the consumption of stimulant like caffeine and depressant like alcohol has been well established over the years. Alcohol has a paradoxical effect that makes it first appear as a stimulant (American heart association, 2015). The two faced nature is due to ethanol the most active ingredient in alcohol. Alcohol slows down the nervous system by acting on the brain’s inhibitory neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid. Studies have shown Bradycardia (slow or decreased heart rate) in people who consume too much alcohol (ehealthMe, 2015). Drinking alcohol can completely alter a person’s concentration, mood, and coordination (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 2013). Too much consumption of alcohol could
The pathophysiology of alcoholism begins after alcohol the ingestion of alcohol. It is absorbed and unaltered through the stomach and intestines. Next it is distributed throughout the body through the blood and absorbed by all tissues and fluids (Huether, 2012, p. 72). Furthermore, in the liver the alcohol blood content is metabolized into acetaldehyde by the enzymes process of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system (MEOS), and catalase (Huether & McCance, 2012). Next, the metabolizing effects the central nervous system (CNS) and exhibits a depressant action. It is first expressed in the subcortical structures of the brain. This has an effect of disorientation of motor skills and intellect. With an increase in blood alcohol concentration, the medullary centers become depressed and as a result affects respiration (Huether & McCance, 2012). In addition, the effects of alcoholism encourage hepatic and gastric changes. The hepatic effect is caused by acetaldehyde, in which, induces inflammation, fatty deposits and enlargement of the liver (Huether & McCance, 2012).
As of January 2015 alcohol related deaths were represented as accountable for approximately 6% of deaths worldwide. That is 3.3 million deaths from alcohol related car accidents to alcohol poisoning. The consumption of alcohol can be tied with being a factor in a variety of diseases, disabilities, tragedies, and crimes. An estimate of over 76 million people suffer from alcohol dependence and abuse. Consumption of alcohol can become a serious threat to personal and public health when an individual engages in activities such as binge drinking or drinking while driving. In other words, harmful drinking is anytime an individual becomes unable to have full perception and control of his/her surroundings because of alcohol. Harmful drinking can also be defined as a pattern of alcohol consumption causing health problems that are directly connected to alcohol.
Alcohol use has spanned history. In fact, there is speculation that alcohol use actually preceded the formation of societies (Doweiko, 2015, p. 30). Thus, alcohol has long been a part of mankind’s life. The function of alcohol has unarguably changed throughout the course of history, as it was first used for nutritional purposes and then later on for religious purposes (Doweiko, 2015, p. 32). Today, alcohol serves a social purpose. In the United States, the prevalence of use is quite high, with just over 50% of the population partaking monthly (Doweiko, 2015, p. 34). This statistic is somewhat alarming considering alcohol use comes with a number of potential adverse consequences. Case in point, even
It is generally accepted that alcohol affects the nerve cell by preventing the production and propagation of electric impulses along a network consisting of axons and synapses. The brain functions much as an electronic system in which one nerve cell, acting as a current generator, communicates information to many other cells, which in turn receive impulses from many other areas. Some impulses are enhanced, others are blunted. Memory and conditioning appear to play an important role in integrating the impulses which are finally expressed as behaviors. Studies in the United States and England have shown that when alcohol becomes dissolved in the membrane of the cells, it fluidizes or disorganizes the membrane, which in turn leads to changes in the physical and biochemical characteristics of the latter. Chronic exposure to alcohol alters the composition of the membrane and its rigidity, so that alcohol
Statistics say that 8.7 million Americans between the ages twelve and through twenty said they have recently consumed alcohol(“NIH)”. When a person is under the influence, they have consumed enough alcohol for their mental and physical features to become impaired. Teenage drinking is an issue that has haunted society for generations. Each year, approximately 5,000 teenagers die from alcohol related car crashes, alcohol poisoning, homicides, suicides, and other injuries (“Underage”). Scientists say that developmental transitions are key factors in a teens decision to consume alcohol. Therefore, because the teen’s brain is undeveloped, it has led them to drink. Drinking alcohol with an undeveloped brain may cause a loss of intellectual capabilities,
At the beginning of the 21st century, it was estimated that the annual number of deaths related to excessive drinking exceeded 100,000 in the United States alone (“Alcoholism”). In fact, in 1995, 140 million Americans were using alcohol is an abusing way (Ammerman, Ott, and Tarter). “It is a chronic and progressive illness that involves the excessive inappropriate ingestion of ethyl alcohol” (“Alcoholism”). Equally, it can be characterized as an emotional and many times, physical dependence on alcohol. It is thought to come from a combination of a wide range of physiological, social, and genetic factors (“Alcoholism”). Even
The paper was supported by resources from the US Department of Health and Human Services, the NIAAA, the Medical Research Service of the US Department of Veterans Affairs, and the Alcoholic Beverage Medical Research Foundation.
Alcohol commonly known as ethanol is considered as the intoxicating agent in fermented and distilled liquors. This satisfying drink at times has been brought into huge debate whether or not the drinking age, which at 21 years old today should be lowered. This current debate has been going on for several years now and no change seems to be in progress as of now. But reasoning has to show that several understanding behind the debut can reason for it to be lowered to an appropriate age such as 18.
Following this initial study, our laboratory examined consumption behavior in mice that have a genetic knockout of the FABP5 gene. Similarly, both male and females underwent a limited access two bottle choice paradigm. The genetically knocked out (KO) animals were compared to wildtype. As originally hypothesized, the genetically modified animals consumed significantly more ethanol compared to wildtype animals. Conversely, following 30 minutes restrain stress, the FABP5 KO animals had a reduced corticosterone response compare to the wildtype animals. These results contradicted our previous study, using the pharmacological inhibition of
Dr. Leonard White, a scientist and educator in the Duke Institute for Brain Science, explains, “In the adolescence years, there are ongoing changes in the brain that relate to synaptic function and what we call synaptic plasticity, how synapses change over time ... at all stages of life, alcohol will have an effect on specific receptors in the brain that will change the way the brain functions.” Thus, teenage years are a time where there is a formation of new networks in the brain and anything disrupting this process causes major changes in the way that person acts and handles
The Tests of Within-Subjects Effects chart also demonstrates the main effect of alcohol consumption which happens to be shown by the F-ratio in the row labelled alcohol. This is highly significant because its value is .000 (p < .001). The conclusion that can be drawn is that the amount of alcohol consumed has a significant impact upon the attractiveness of the woman selected.
The purpose of this study is to investigate undergraduates expectancies of consuming alcohol on its own and consuming alcohol combined with energy drinks. An individual’s beliefs regarding what will happen as a result of consuming alcohol are referred to as “Alcohol Expectancies” (Brown, Goldman, Inn, & Anderson, 1980). These are often tested on an scale called the Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Scale (AEAS) assessing individuals against criterion which varied in positive and negative valence and low and high arousal (Morean, Corbin, & Treat, 2012). Prior to this scale, the alcohol expectancy theory concluded that individuals are more at risk of excessive alcohol consumption if they believe that consuming alcohol will lead to low levels of
The history of alcohol, its production and the practices associated with the act of drinking is as old and rich as the history of human race. Alcoholism is a social issue with concerns citizens not only of America, but also the entire world. The perception of depedence and enslavement of ethanol should be changed in order to prevent the issue from growing even fruther. This addiction is destructive to the addict's health, both psychological and physical, it affects their relationships with friends and family.
Because alcohol is not found easily in nature, genetic mechanisms to protect against excessive consumption may not have evolved in humans as they frequently have for protection against natural