BIOCHEM Task Essay

1049 Words Nov 18th, 2013 5 Pages
Enzymology and Catalytic Mechanism
Carbohydrate Metabolism, Adenosine Triphosphate

Western Governors University
ENZYMES
• Are proteins that act as catalysts, and carry out chemical reactions.
• They speed up or slow down reactions, but remain unchanged. (Thinkwell, 2000)
• Enzymes bind to a substrate (anything that needs to be changed into something else [molecule, protein etc.])
• Enzymes are important in cellular metabolism.
• Enzymes are involved in processes such as the breakdown of carbohydrates and converts them into energy for the body to use.

Lock and Key Model or Induced Fit Diagram of Enzymatic Activity
Effect of Enzymes on Activation Energy
Breakdown of Fructose
• Sucrose is made up of Glucose and
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• Mutations in the ALDOB gene reduce the function of the enzyme, impairing the ability to metabolize fructose.
• The lack of functional aldolase B results in accumulation of fructose-1-phosphate in liver cells.
• The buildup is toxic and could result in death of liver cells over time. (Genetics home reference, 2013)
Hereditary Fructose Intolerance (HFI)
• The breakdown of DHAP releases a phosphate group from this molecule.
• Phosphate groups are used for a number of cell processes, including the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the cell’s main energy source, and the release of stored sugar in the liver. (Genetics home reference, 2013)
• Lack of functional aldolase B enzyme reduces the amount of DHAP, leading to fewer phosphate groups available for use in the body; also, without aldolase B, fructose cannot enter the glycolysis process into which sugar will not be converted into usable energy for cell processes.
The Cori Cycle
• If the entire Cori cycle occurred and remained within that single cell, it would be considered a pointless/useless sequence; with glucose being spent and reproduced at the cost of ATP and GTP hydrolysis.
• With 6 ATPs being consumed and used, but only 2 ATPs being synthesized. 4 ATPs are being wasted and lost. Less ATP will be produced if the entire Cori cycle occurred and remained within that single cell.
• Simultaneously, cells are forced to metabolize glucose anaerobically, which leads to lactate

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