BUSS1001 essay

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Essay Introduction Culture is an important criterion for organisations to determine their strategies of management and leadership. This essay aims to outline Hofstede’s cross-cultural framework, identify similarities and differences in comparison with the Chinese Value Survey (CVS) and discuss how differences in individualism-collectivism and long-term/short-term orientation among employees could affect management and leadership. The finding is that Hofstede’s framework and CVS differ from cultural background and respondents; oppositely, the countries researched and outcomes are similar, and parts of the contents are related. The essay also suggests that individualism-collectivism and long-term/short-term orientation would influence…show more content…
Also, managers in collectivistic societies pursue conformity and orderliness, which will reduce their support for employee’s initiative (Hofstede 2001). Furthermore, managers motivate subordinates by group-interests, which is more effective and acceptable by collectivistic employees (Hofstede 1984). Maslow’s hierarchy may not work effectively for collectivism accounts for collectivists’ attention on belongingness (Hofstede 1984). Therefore, managers adjust motivation method by placing belongingness above ego-needs (Hofstede 1984). As for leadership style, directive leadership operates better in a collectivistic culture where employees compromise personal desires for the group (Hofstede 2001). Furthermore, relationship-oriented leadership is effective in collectivistic societies due to a strong emphasis on the relation between people in collectivistic culture (Wendt, Euwema and Emmerik 2009). Protesters argue that individualism-collectivism could not always affect management and leadership to some extent because sometimes the concepts are universally accepted no matter the changes in cultures. In Kuchinke’s study (1999), age, gender, education and other factors have strong effects on management and leadership, but cultural values based on Hofstede’s framework are not the most powerful predictors of management and leadership. Towards the

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