Background And Related Work Of Marine Algae Species

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Chapter 2: Background and Related Work

Methylation analysis plays an important role in bioinformatics area. It modifies the functions of DNA and leads to alter the functions of genes in cells. These changes are unidirectional. Hence, doing research on methylation analysis potentially explain that how complex organisms characterized by the surprisingly low number of genes (Sette, Ladomery, & Ghigna, 2013). Marine algae species were chosen to do the research, because they are ecologically important and have a long history of being used as food, medicines and industrial applications. (Raja, Vipin, & Aiyappan, 2013) They have been recognized as one of the best species to explain biological diversity. Approaches used in the research may be extended to analyze other marine organisms as well, since scientists have found some organisms in ocean that are compounded by microalgae. (El Gamal, 2010).

Another importance of DNA methylation is production of chromatin structure, which leads to growth of a single cell in an uncontrolled level to a complex multicellular organism. It also causes the development of cancer. According to new studies, the genes with a promoter region which has higher ratio of methylated cytosine are transcriptionally silent. Aberrant DNA methylation increases the rate of malignancy. Mainly there are two types of methylation: hyper methylation which control the activation of genes, and hypo methylation leads to the development of cancer through various processes.
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