Background. Depression And Comorbid Anxiety . The Great

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Depression and Comorbid Anxiety
The great majority of depressed patients suffer from one or more other comorbid mental disorders (Melartin et al., 2002) and according to a recent worldwide survey the estimated rate of experiencing comorbid anxiety disorders among depressed patients ranges between about 29.9 and 54.0%. Both conditions (depression and anxiety) are highly prevalent in clinical practice and represent serious health and disability concerns and costs (e.g., Cavanaugh, Furlanetto, & Powell). Further, comorbid anxiety among depressed patients appears to be related to higher likelihood of seeking pharmacological treatment (Jacobi et al., 2004) and reduced likelihood of benefitting from it (Jacubovski and Bloch, 2014).
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They identified distinctive features of PI and CB therapy and developed the Comparative Psychotherapy Process Scale (CPPS), a 20-item measure comprised of two 10-item subscales: CPPS-PI and CPPS-CB (Hilsenroth et al., 2005). The development of tools such as the CPPS allows to discuss specific techniques elements of both PI and CB treatments with more clarity and preciseness.
One group of techniques within the CPPS-PI subscale that has been traditionally associated with psychodynamic psychotherapy is a "focus on affect." The type of emotions we experience at any given time are related to our momentarily available thought-action repertoire (e.g., Fredrickson, 1998; Fredrickson and Branigan, 2005). It is therefore not surprising that processing emotions in psychotherapy has been found to be a useful therapeutic intervention (see Greenberg, 2016, for a more detailed description). Further, a number of studies have found affect-focused techniques to be important mechanisms of change specifically within psychodynamic treatment (e.g., Diener, Hilsenroth, and Weinberger, 2007; Diener and Hilsenroth, 2009; Fisher et al., 2016; Lilliengren et al. 2016). Diener, Hilsenroth, and Weinberger (2007), for example, concluded that encouraging patients to experience and express feelings is related to improvement over the course of short-term dynamic
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