Bacterial Meningitis Essay

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There are three different types of meningitis; viral, fungal, and bacterial meningitis. Although not as common as viral meningitis, bacterial meningitis is more likely to leave individuals with permanent disabilities. In children, disabilities can range from deafness, hearing loss, and cerebral palsy? the most common after effects. And in adults, septic shock, brain swelling, and hydrocephalus are most likely to occur if the disease advances without treatment within a sufficient time period. The three main bacteria responsible for bacterial meningitis are streptococcus pneumoniae, haemophilus influenza type B (Hib), and neisseria meningitidis.

Hib meningitis is an infection caused by a bacteria called, Haemophilus influenza serotype
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In the 1930s, infant mortality because of bacterial meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenza type B was almost at one hundred percent. But with the onset of antibiotics in the 1960s, the mortality rate was reduced to a mere range of five to ten percent. Thirty percent of survivors were often left with defects such as deafness, blindness, seizures, and mental retardation(Mark A. Herbert, ed. Derek W. Hood, ed. E. Richard Moxon, ed. Haemophilus influenza Protocols , 29?30). Anyone can carry the bacterium. The bacteria are found dormant in the back of their nose and throat. Though they are dormant in the carrier, the carrier can still pass them on to another person through ways such as: kissing, coughing, sneezing, sharing a cup, utensil, lip gloss, or cigarette. In other words, through the exchange of respiratory and throat secretions. Some of these ways of transmission are the core reasons as to why this disease is more prevalent in children under five years of age (Common Bacterial Hib).

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a gram positive bacterium that is a normal inhabitant of the human respiratory tract. This bacterium is present in the nasopharyngeal region of five to ten percent of healthy adults and twenty to forty percent of healthy children and causes no harm to the individuals whatsoever. But it can attack the body by escaping the host?s defenses and phagocytic mechanisms through choroid plexus seeding from bacterium or through direct extension
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