Bacterial Transformation : Escherichia Coli ( E. Coli )

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Bacterial transformation is the insertion of a plasmid containing a gene or genes of importance into bacteria. It can be used to make large quantities of a promising gene. Bacterial Transformation can be artificial or natural. A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from a cell 's chromosome DNA. Plasmids exist in bacterial cells and they also appear in some eukaryotes. The genes carried in plasmids offer bacteria with genetic benefits, like resistance to antibiotics. Definite conditions can help bacterial cells absorb external DNA. Cells treated in this condition become more likely to be competent to take up, greatly increasing their transformation efficiency. Transformation efficiency is the number of transformed cells gained per microgram of plasmid DNA. It is a sign of the success of a bacterial transformation experiment. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a common bacterium that makes single celled plasmids exchange easy. It yields clones so that the DNA will not be mixed up. In this experiment students attempt to transform E. coli with a plasmid. The plasmid that will be used to transform the bacteria in this experiment is pGal and occurs naturally in E. coli. Transformed bacteria cells will grow in the presence of the antibiotic while bacteria cells that did not take up the plasmid, will not grow. Students will use mathematical calculations to determine the efficiency of the transformation process. The transformed E. coli with the
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