Increasing Kara-lynn’s speech intelligibility will be the primary target of treatment. The multiple oppositions approach with maximally distinct targets will be utilized to treat Kara-lynn’s phoneme collapses into /d/. She collapses multiple phonemes into /d/ in word initial, medial, and final positions including some stops, fricatives, and consonant clusters. The multiple oppositions approach targets phoneme collapse by simultaneously contrasting the errored sounds with the target sounds .This helps the child recognize their own patterns of error and make widespread changes to their sound system as a whole(consider adding reference).
Procedure. Movement of the articulators were examined using the EMA AG-200 system. Like the previous study, five sensors were attached to the participant’s articulators, including: the bridge of the nose, the maxilla above the upper central incisors, the jaw, tongue back, and tongue tip. The first two sensors were used as references to provide information about head movements. The participants were instructed to repeat the syllables /ta/ and /ka/ as fast as they could and as many times as they could on a single breath while maintaining
McEvoy and Dodd (1992) reported higher incidence of atypical phonological errors in twin children in their study. The children typically use a smaller number of different speech sounds than are used in the adult language. The structure of words may be simplified and there are systematic substitutions of one sound for another.
Ibrahim, Kilpatrick, Reilly, and Vogel (2009) performed a comparative study of the acoustic measures of hypernasality in the speech of school-aged children aged 2-14 years, some with cleft lip/palate and others without cleft lip/palate. Ibrahim, Kilpatrick, Reilly, and Vogel (2009) provided perceptual ratings of the hyper/hyponasality of vowel production in the children’s speech. Any child who was sick or had acquired an upper respiratory infection was excluded from the study, as was any child with cleft lip/palate who also had any other disorders or comorbidities. The study included a perceptual assessment in which two speech therapists were required to agree upon the perception of the phonemes the child produced. Each child held and sustained two vowels, followed by production of two CVC words without nasal phonemes. This process was repeated five times with each child. The
The observation began with a review of what phonological awareness means. According to Chard, D.J. & Dickson, S.V. (2018), it is being aware of the fact that oral language is made up of many smaller units, such as words and syllables. In order to be successful at reading and writing language, an individual must develop skills in phonological awareness. Teaching students to rhyme is very important also because it is one of the ways students show that they have an awareness of phonological awareness. An example of rhyming is when a word is broken down by a single letter or combination of letter sounds such as the word chop would be broken into the onset: ch and rime: op. Students must
We will assess this skill using The Phonological Awareness Profile by Robertson and Salter, a criterion-referenced assessment (1995). Criterion-referenced assessments are not used to compare students’ performance with each other, but rather to evaluate the student’s mastery in a specified subject. Such tests are designed to provide information for instruction as well. Only the phonological awareness subtest will be administered to Chloe. This subtest has the following tasks: rhyming, segmentation, isolation, deletion, substitution, and blending. The tasks are composed of the following:
Summary of Interpretation: Given the information provided in Interpretation A, the clinician diagnosed Kara-Lynn with a severe phonological disorder. This diagnosis was made based on evidence provided by testing results, clinician observations, and speech analyses. Kara-Lynn demonstrated phoneme collapses into /d/ in place of stops (/p/, /t/, /k/, /g/), fricatives (/s/, /z/, /θ/, /ð/), and some consonant clusters (/tr/, /gr/) across all word positions. For example, Kara-Lynn produced /diə/ for “seal,” /dædɚ/ for “treasure,” and /dədudɚ/ for “computer.” Kara-Lynn also presented with active phonological processes of final consonant deletion (/fɪ/ for “fish”), cluster reduction (/tul/ for “school”), vocalization (/ɛləkə/ for “helicopter”), and deaffrication (/ʃi/ for “cheese”). She also presented with inconsistent patterns of initial-consonant deletion (/ɑʊps/ for “house”, /ɪʒ/ for “bridge”). In most instances, Kara-Lynn presented with both final consonant deletion and another phonological process, which markedly impacted her speech intelligibility, as when she produced /lɑʊ/ for “clown,” demonstrating both final consonant deletion and cluster reduction. She also expressed a high percentage of CV (27%) and CVC (29%) syllable and word shapes, with little other variation. Analysis of Kara-Lynn’s speech sample revealed similar errors exhibited during formal assessment, including phoneme collapse into /d/, high occurrences of initial and final consonant deletion and cluster
Preschoolers with verbalization sound disorders have clinically consequential impairments in the engenderment of sound production of the ambient language. Although many of these produced sound errors resolve after several years (with or sometimes without intervention), developmental appropriate speech sound production is not always achieved. Some sound errors may continue into adulthood. Concretely, (Preston, Hull, & Edwards, 2013) intended to determine if preschool verbalization error types (e.g., atypical sound errors and distortion errors), which may reflect different levels of psycholinguistic processing, are indicative of school-age phonological awareness and verbalization sound outcomes.
Ava Bracciante, an eight year-one month old female, who has been attending Lehman College Speech and Hearing Clinic since spring 2014 due to parental concerns regarding her articulation. She is currently attending the clinic once a week for 50-minute sessions. Ava’s parents, Mr. and Mrs. Bracciante, provided the case history report and stated that Ava received a speech-language evaluation at the Ampark School in 2014. The evaluation revealed gliding of the lingua-palatal rhotic /r/ and vocalization of the rhotic diphthong /ɚ/; her intelligibility was not compromised; therefore, she did not qualify for services. Mrs. Bracciante reported that she has seen an improvement in Ava’s speech and is an active participant to her progress.
On the articulation subtest of the DEAP X produced errors /ϴ/→ /f/, /ð/ → /d/ in all positions, as well as /k/→ /t/ and /g/→ /d/ in initial position. She also produced /ts/ → /tʃ/ in the final position of a word. X produced lateralizations of /ʃ/ and /s/ in all positions. The phonology subtest assess phonological processes in both single words and connected speech. On the phonology subtest she demonstrated fronting of /k/→ /t/ in initial position and blends. The single word-connected speech subtest indicated inconsistent errors when fronting /t/→ /k/. The scores based on the three subtests indicate the client produces distortions of /s/ and /sh/, as well as typical simplifications for /k/, /g/, /ϴ/, and /ð/
Purpose: A minimal-contrast method to teaching phonological oppositions is a conceptual, rather than motoric, strategy to suppress phonological processes. This method was assessed for effectiveness in reducing the frequency of process use and generalization of treatment effect.
“Phonological disorders in children can result from physical or organic causes or may be functional in nature ("Phonological disorders in," 2013)”. Children with a phonological disorder may experience a higher risk for reading and writing disabilities. “If left unresolved, phonological disorders have long-term consequences that may interfere with an individual's future social, academic, and vocational well-being, largely resulting from persistent, reduced intelligibility of speech ("Phonological disorders in," 2013).”
The components of the Cycles Phonological Remediation Approach were developed from theories of phonological development, principles of cognitive psychology, and ongoing research in phonological acquisition (Hodson, 2006). Hodson proposes that children who are highly unintelligible would benefit from a treatment program that targets pattern errors in systematic cycles and uses auditory bombardment in combination with practice activities during therapy sessions. Clinicians interested in employing this method could benefit from research that answers the question- “is the cycles approach more effective than the traditional articulation therapy approach in the treatment of children who are highly
On March 7, 2016, I observed Makenzie Cockerill in room A117 from 10:00-10:45 am. The client was preschool-aged. The clinician informed me that the client had low intelligibility. The objectives of the day were to work on the /b/ sounds and beginning vowel sounds. The clinician also planned to do a mini screening of Child Apraxia of Speech. However, she informed me that she didn’t believe that this was the case in the child, but they wanted to rule it out. The client had multiple speech sounds in error, so the clinician implemented a cyclical strategy.