However, if abused, these depressants can have many unwanted and harmful effects. With prescribed depressants, the first few days a person usually feels sleepy and uncoordinated, but as the body becomes accustomed to the effects of the drug and tolerance develops, these side effects begin to disappear. Sometimes the dosage isn’t enough, and the user requires more of the drug or begins to use long term, and larger doses may be needed to achieve the therapeutic effects. Continued use can also lead to physical dependence and withdrawal when use is abruptly reduced or stopped.
These medications have evolved and changed due to availability in the past few years. Cost has also had an impact on what medications are available to a dying patient. A patient self-administers an oral liquid suspension or a powdered mixed with a soft food such as applesauce. The mix of medications include barbiturates, chloral hydrate, and morphine which are compounded into a single dose prescription to facilitate death. Premedication is required prior to taking this final dose. The most common barbiturates are phenobarbital, pentobarbital or secobarbital. Phenobarbital is the longest acting and is typically used for seizures. Pentobarbital and secobarbital are used to sedate prior to surgery and are not as long acting as phenobarbital. Barbiturates effect the central nervous system. They are classified by their how long they take to effect and their duration of action. Barbiturates increase GABA (gaba amino-butyric acid) neurotransmissions in the brain. The increase in GABA causes drowsiness. They are highly addictive, and patients may become tolerant. The addiction is not an issue when a patient has reached this stage and does not need to be a concern. More importantly, if they have used them during the disease process as a sleep aid the patient may have built a tolerance and would require a higher dosage to be effective. Barbiturates do not provide pain relief, to provide pain relief a patient would need to reach a dose high enough to cause a comatose state. Chloral hydrate is a sleep aid or tranquilizer prior to surgery. This medication is quick
There are short term effects that can happen to drug users depend on the quantity used, the purity of the substance, and whether or not it was used with other mind effecting substances. Short term effects only last for a small period of time and are not as severe as long term effects but still can impact a person's physical and emotional state. There are many different types and classifications of substances that produce a variety of short-term effects, but the most common ones include increased heart rate, high blood pressure, dizziness, tremors, and mood changes. The danger of these effects becomes higher when substances are taken in larger dosages, as well as potential heart attack, stroke, respiratory failure and coma increase. Some of the most common substances of abuse include alcohol, hallucinogens, opiates, and barbiturates each of these produce their own unique short-term effects. When someone consumes an abusive amount of alcohol it can cause the following short term effects: mood swings, memory problems, slurred speech, trouble concentrating, coordination issues, and trouble making decisions. Drinking larger amounts of alcohol can result in blackout and amnesia. Hallucinogens is a mind altering chemical that is found in drugs that can cause that these short term effects: increased heart rate, blurred vision, dilated pupils, excessive sweating, and
The types are benzodiazepines and barbiturates. Benzodiazepines are the most abused overall though. Benzodiazepines have many medical uses and are often prescribed by doctors to treat panic disorder, OCD, Phobias, PTSD and more anxiety disorders. They are even used to treat insomnia, convulsive disorders and are even used in dentistry. The drug acts on the receptors of GABA neurotransmitters which is what helps relax patients. Some examples of drugs are Xanax, Ativan, Valium and Klonopin. Although most people don't die from abuse of benzodiazepines, if mixed with alcohol can be fatal. One of the most commonly abused substances of this class is a drug called Xanax. Abuse of benzodiazepines can lead to many side effects such as amnesia, disinhibition, emotional blunting and depression. Disinhibition from these drugs can decrease a person's self control and can lead to excessive anger and poor decision making. It is very similar to how alcohol can increase this also. Along with depression increases in suicidal ideation can occur (Longo and Johnson, pp.
Prescriptions for sleeping medications reached 56 million in 2008, thats 54%more than in 2004, sleeping pills can be consumed for many reasons, 27% of Americans say reasons for sleeping issues are usually anxieties about personal finances, the economy or a job loss, adults are not the only people taking these medicines, 10-19 year old are the most common to use because of ADD medication, though 40% of adults will have sleeping problems occasionally, the medications can vary very wide that are considered as sleeping pills. Barbiturates are a type of drug that causes sedation by depressing the central nervous system. In larger doses it can be used as a general anesthetic to put people to sleep. Benzodiazepines are usually the most commonly prescribed for sleeping issues, the
There must be special attention toward the patient's addiction history before these agents are prescribed. An understanding of the toxicity and side effects of benzodiazepines, abuse patterns and alternative anxiolytic and hypnotic agents may help clinicians to be safe from issues of medico legal case.
The second most commonly abused prescribed drug is sedatives/depressants. These types of pills are used for anxiety and sleeping. If these types of prescriptions are abused it can make the person really high and not remember what they are doing. Signs can be excessive sleepiness, slurred speech, and acting really mean (Davis).people usually look for this kind of drug because they are depressed and the want to try to hide something in their life. This drug slows down the heartbeat so if someone takes to many it can cause their heart to stop. The two most commonly abuse depressants are valium and
The efficacy and safety of the drug in patients under the age of 18 years is not established. With renal / hepatic insufficiency and long-term treatment, control over the picture of peripheral blood and liver enzymes is necessary. Patients who did not take previously psychoactive drugs respond to the drug at lower doses compared to patients taking antidepressants, anxiolytics or alcohol. With endogenous depression, alprazolam can be used in combination with antidepressants. With the use of alprazolam, patients with depression have seen cases of hypomanic and manic development. Like other benzodiazepines, alprazolam has the ability to induce drug dependence in long-term admission in large doses (more than 4 mg / day). With a sudden discontinuation of alprazolam, there may be comeback syndromes, such as depression, irritability, insomnia, increased sweating, especially with prolonged admission (more than 8-12 weeks). When patients develop such unusual reactions as increased aggressiveness, acute excitations, feelings of fear, thoughts of suicide, hallucinations, increased muscle cramps, difficult sleep, superficial sleep, treatment should be discontinued. During pregnancy Xanax is very dangerous due to its toxic effect on the fetus and increases the risk of congenital malformations when applied in the first trimester of pregnancy. Admission of therapeutic doses in later periods
One in five people in the United States suffered from allergies or asthma symptoms (Allergy Statistics and Facts, webmd.com) . Most people at some point have taken or bought Benadryl to relieve an allergic reaction, itchiness, or for the common cold. In 1943, George Rieveschl discovered diphenhydramine while researching muscle relaxers. Eventually, Rieveschl changed the name of the antihistamine relief drug from diphenhydramine into Benadryl. Benadryl is now a common household name, that has various uses, ways to be taken, and side effects.
f. .stimulants can cause enhanced brain activity increase and llertness in energy elevated blood pressure increase heart rate increase respiration and sleep deprivation…. Ultimately these three drugs possess the same long term affect when abused; high potential for physical dependence and addiction.
Money is an issue death penalty activists rarely account for. The differences in price fall on the taxpayers shoulders. Because of numerous appeals, the total money spent on each death penalty case is different. When examining the death penalty as a whole, however, it is important to identify that not all costs are monetary. In addition to losing tax payers’ money for appeals that almost always fail, the drug cocktails themselves do not consistently achieve desired result. Several death row inmates have gone as far as to sue the state for a violation of their 8th Amendment rights. Due to this controversy, states have had increasing trouble accessing barbiturates for their “drug cocktail.” Indiana is no different. The escalating difficulties in the process of obtaining these drugs from overseas harm our foreign relations -- especially with European allies. The arduous process of importing barbiturates only increases the price of executions and the chance of a “cruel and unusual” punishment occurring.
Albuterol; is a bronchodilator which means it will open and relax the breathing passages in your lungs. This will treat your wheezing, when you have shortness of breath, and a cough. Side effects that may occur are a shaking, nervous feeling, nausea and dizziness.
Short-term effects are increased respiration, rapid heart rate, decreased appetite, increased physical activity, irregular heartbeat, increased body temperature, and increased blood pressure (www.drugabuse.gov). The long-term effects include: skin sores, extreme weight loss, and severe dental problems, as well as higher risk of contracting infectious diseases (www.drugabuse.gov).
Clenbuterol is widely used across the world as a bronchodilator in the treatment of asthma, and marketed as steroid. Although not approved by the U.S. FDA, this is most likely due the fact there are other alternatives on the US market, and not due to any negative side-effects of the drug.
They slow the body down. They relax, tranquilize, relieve pain and induce sleep. One may say and do things that they would never do under normal circumstances. When these depressants bare abused they can slow do0wm body functions such as breathing to an extent that a person may pass out or even lapse into a coma.