Barriers to Effective Listening Essay

2291 Words10 Pages
Abstract: This paper explores multiple studies on the many listening barriers in communication. Specifically, this paper focuses on a study done about the frequent listening barriers and how they can affect listening effectiveness. In addition, It discuses the many individual listening barriers. It explores six major listening factors that come from the multiple listening barriers. The main study this paper revolves around is conducted by Steven Golen (1990), conducted with university students and their opinions of frequent barriers to effective listening. The study explores the most frequently encountered listening barriers in communication. 2 LISTENING BARRIERS IN PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS Frequent Listening Barriers in Personal…show more content…
There was no grouping the barriers into dimensions or factors to find out if any demographic characteristics, like age or gender had anything to do with the results. Golen’s study not only expands the number of barriers, but he also factor analyzes the barriers and tests them for demographic differences between students. Before Golen’s study, no studies determined factors of barriers to effective listening, but many studies showed factors or groups of similar listening behaviors. A study of 127 college students, done by Barker, Watson, and Kibler (1984) found that delivery, credibility, speaker’s voice, interestingness, understandability, and clarity were used to determine speaker effectiveness by listeners. Lewis and Reinsch (1988) performed a study of 106 bank and hospital employees. They grouped 38 statements into 6 groups: overt responses, nonverbal feedback, level of interest, time and attention, verbal interaction and empathy. Hunt and Cusella (1983) factor analyzed 17 behaviors, into four factors- empathy, receiving skills, instruction criticism, and giving feedback. Brownell (1987) found in her study of listening behaviors that there are five factors. The factors included sensitivity and considers emotional component of a message; understands and recalls information accurately; objective and nonjudgmental; concentrates and encourages information sharing and provides
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