Basic Group Needs, Conflicts and Dynamics

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Basic Group Needs, Conflicts and Dynamics
Many have presented persuasive arguments and examples highlighting the value of Individual Psychology in solving workplace and organizational problems. In this paper, the aim is to increase understanding of conflict and other self-defeating and destructive behaviors regularly encountered by groups. A range of diverse theories and models of conflict, basic human needs, and dynamics are juxtaposed with Adlerian theory of human behavior. Developmental and social psychological, sociological, group dynamics and management theories and models are explored and integrated. The principles extracted suggest ways of encouraging cooperation within groups in general as well as in the workplace Basic
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Dreikurs described how regarding oneself as a victim, excessive concern for prestige, engaging in power contests, moralizing, or moral righteousness can obscure and inflate relatively straightforward and resolvable differences.
A majority of sociologists and psychologists believe that a certain amount of conflict is necessary for early self- and group-identification and for all subsequent growth and development (e.g., Coser, 1956; Kegan, 1982; Winnicott, 1965). Psychodynamic and ego psychologists have contended that if infants were to have their every need perfectly anticipated and met, then a healthy “self” would not emerge, and essential separation, individuation, and interpersonal relationships would not ensue (e.g., Erikson, 1963, 1968; Kegan; Loevinger, 1976; Winnicott). Winnicott’s concept of the good enough mother is predicated on the notion that some discomfort and conflict are not only inevitable features of being human, but also necessary for healthy growth and development.
Adler made a similar point when he asserted that, in addition to childhood deprivation, neglect, and abuse, pampering is likely to result in greater than usual feelings of inferiority. These feelings are expressed in continual demands for special consideration and favors and a lack of social interest – all of which are bound to bring such a person into conflict with others (Adler, 1931/1992).
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