Basic Necessities Required For Sustaining Life

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1.1 ESSENTIAL OF WATER
Water is one of the basic necessities required for sustaining life. Human survival as well as industrial development could not be possible without adequate supply of water. It is therefore not a surprise that water has occupied an important position in the activities of mankind. The fate of tribes and nations, cities and civilizations has been determined by drought or floods and by abundance or scarcity of water supply since from the earliest days of mankind. Thus there is a close relationship between water usage and modern civilization. With the advent of industrialization and urbanization, global water utilization has doubled every fifteen years.

Irrespective of the origin, water always contains a complex mixture of organic and inorganic substances. Most of the substances are of natural origin resulting from the complex interaction between water, soil and underlying geological strata, and from complex biological and microbiological processes occurring between the soil and water. Eroded soil, decaying vegetation, living microorganism, colloidal and suspended matter of numerous varieties are also found in water.

. Surface waters are those that come from rivers, streams, ponds, lakes and reservoirs, while ground waters come from wells, mines and springs. Ground water usually contains a large amount of dissolved substances (minerals) because it percolates (slowly filters) through rock and soil. The greater the depth below the ground from which ground
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