Bauer Chapter 9

947 WordsJan 13, 20134 Pages
Chapter 9 & 10 Short Answer and Critical Thinking CHAPTER 9 Short answer 15. Name and describe the four functional abilities of muscle that are the basis for muscle response. Contractibility- is the ability to shorten forcibly when adequately stimulated. This ability sets muscle apart from other tissue types. Extensibility- is the ability to extend or stretch. Muscle cells shorten when contracting, but they can stretch even beyond their resting length, when relaxed. Elasticity- is the ability of a muscle cell to recoil and resume its resting length after stretching. 16. Distinguish between (a) direct and indirect muscle attachments and (b) tendon and an aponeurosis. (a.) In direct or fleshy attachments, the epimysium…show more content…
22. Describe the three distinct types of skeletal muscle fibers. The three types of muscle fibers are (1) fast glycolytic fibers (2) slow oxidative fibers and (3) fast oxidative fibers. Most muscles contain a mixture of fiber types. 24. Describe some cause(s) of muscle fatigue and define this term clearly. Muscle fatigue is a state of physiological inability to contract even though the muscle still may be receiving stimuli. Although many factors appear to contribute to fatigue, its specific causes are not fully understood. Most experimental evidence indicates that fatigue is due to a problem in excitation contraction compiling or in rare cases, problems at neuromuscular junction. Several ionic imbalances contribute to muscle fatigue and also intense exercise of short duration. Critical Thinking 1. Jim Fitch decided that his physique left much to be desired, so he joined a local health club and began to “pump iron” three times weekly. After 3 months he noticed that his arm and chest muscles were substantially large. Explain the structural and functional basis of these changes. Muscle hypertrophy— results mainly from high-intensity resistance exercise such as weight lifting, which pits muscles against high resistance or immovable forces. Here, strength not stamina is important. The additional muscle bulk largely reflects the increased size of individual muscle fibers rather

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