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Bebop To Cool: A Brief Summary

Decent Essays
Eddie S. Meadows is the author of published books include Jazz Scholarship and Pedagogy: A Research and Information Guide and Bebop to Cool: Context, Ideology, and Musical Identity. He is specialized in ethnomusicology and he teaches at San Diego State University and also a visiting professor at USC, UCLA, UC Berkeley, Michigan State University, and University of Ghana.
The main ideas of this article are discussing how bebop became a genre. First, he started with where the name came from. The name, bebop, might come from the song “Hey Baba Rebop,” or it might come from the vocal imitation or instrumental phrases. According to Clarke, the music was not called bop, in fact, it did not have a name; they called it modern. Second, Meadows talked about the innovators of bebop. Buster Smith, Charlie Parker’s
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Bebop was seen as a distraction from World War Two. The racial issues were big in 1940s. The musicians who played bebop were viewed as revolutionaries and linking it with negative behaviors such as drugs and violence. Moreover, the stereotype of African American musicians as entertainer, not serious players, they played for dance, not for concerts. Bebop musicians were seeking the acceptance from the public. The performance at the Carnegie Hall in 1947 by Parker, Gillespie, and Fitzgerald made such impression because Carnegie Hall was where European classical musicians performed and those musicians and audiences were seen as high class people, and when the bebop was performed there, it made the bebop look different. White people may consider where bebop stands in the social status. Meadows discussed the jam sessions of bebop. It became the learning, sharing, and competing opportunities for musicians to social. It was when musicians showed off their skills; they were not only playing, but they had to improvise with a fast tempo. Meadows talked about bebop on the 52nd street and critics of bebop later in the
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