Ulrich beck :world risk society What is "risk society" and how did it emerge? "Risk society" means that we live in a world out of control. There is nothing certain but uncertainty. But let's go into details. The term "risk" has two radically different meanings. It applies in the first place to a world governed entirely by the laws of probability, in which everything is measurable and calculable. But the word is also commonly used to refer to non-quantitative uncertainties, to "risks that cannot be known." When I speak about "risk society," it is in this latter sense of manufactured uncertainties. These "true" uncertainties, enforced by rapid technological innovations and accelerated societal responses, are creating a fundamentally new
A strong written argument is supported by several methods that are used to legitimize the author’s position as well as to discredit any counterargument brought forth. The techniques include introducing a counterargument and weakening it’s position with evidence. Providing legitimate academic research such as statistics as well as anecdotes from scholars on the given subject can reinforce the author’s argument. Another important method used is requiring the reader to critically think about a subject brought forth by challenging their preconceived ideas about a topic. This may also include using hidden assumptions that use implicit statements which have a certain opinion such as “If I follow the rules, good things will happen”, this is common
Since the dawn of mankind, clusters of innovations throughout history have allowed for societal progression at an explosive rate. While primarily fostering a centrifugal system of advancements; humans’ interests in expansion is spiraling out of control. Throughout history elements of collapse can be traced through civilizations and natural resources. Wright’s argument posits humans have hyperextended their utilization of resources at a rate that cannot be replenished, therein by setting up the world for the largest ecological collapse in history (Wright, 2004, pg. 130-131). Due to the cyclical process of past collapse and reformation humans have an advantage to rectify our current consumption rates ultimately avoiding a fate similar to past societies (Wright, 2004, pg. 131). As such Wright’s argument should frame larger discussions of responsible citizenship.
Nicholas Carr Claimed that the internet affects our information processing. Carr backed up his argument by speaking with a wide array of educated and reputable people like friends, colleagues, a blogger, GMU and a professor making his argument validity greater. Carr admits that he and his friends also; have the same problem by saying that he was appealing to emotions by using Ethos.
(Adam et al, 2000:168) However, because we have made this risk with the devolvement of technology then we are able to understand it better and assume we can measure them. They apply the concept of Actualarism that categorise populations according to risk, with this concept we can measure the risk and the likelihood of them happening and by doing this we can take steps in reducing and avoiding these risks. A fundamental concept in the risk society is that to avoid risk we can distribute the risk which is part of neo-liberalism. This can be seen to be used in everyday life with car insurance companies who charge an individual more money in according to the risk they pose whilst driving .Risk has become a fundamentally commodity in a capitalist society. Risk society means that risk thinking has become normalised for individuals in everyday life, every decision we make we think about the risk connected to it. The rise of individualism has seen that individuals will purchase the best risk protection they can without thinking about the weaker person in society. Hudson states that we now fear crime from one another and because of this we want people who threaten us to be removed from our environment to eliminate the risk, this has been a contributing factor to why society has become more punitive. (Hudson, 2003:45) In the risk society governance is directed at the provision of security and experience of security usually
In the fourth chapter, “Fouling Our Own Nests,” of Unquenchable: America’s Water Crisis and What to do About It, Robert Glennon discusses the dangers of water contamination that plague many parts of the United States. His main claim that water pollution requires the help of the entire population stems from an unmentioned warrant: contaminating the national water supply with chemicals from individual communities and industries is detrimental to American society. In order to strengthen his argument, Glennon showcases the impacts of local contamination issues on larger populations and utilizes quantitatively intimidating statistics to solidify his position and inspire his readers to fight for better water regulation.
A common argument is the warning that government action in one aspect of the people’s lives predicts the generation of more invasive aspects, and the undermining of personal freedoms.
In 2011, Jennifer Connell was attending her nephew, Sean, 8th birthday party, Connell walks into the backyard and upon seeing his aunt, Sean runs and jumps to hug her. Causing Connell to fall backwards landing on the ground and breaking her wrist in the process. Instead of doing something rash, like, accepting he is eight and it was an accident since the laws of physics are not clear to him yet, she did the rational thing. She filed a lawsuit - against the nephew. She claimed that the nephew had been "careless" and wanted $127,000 for emotional suffering and medical bills. In her claim she stated that she had recently attended a party and her inability to hold her "hors d'oeuvres plate was distressing and embarrassing. Deliberation lasted a mere twenty minutes. The jury awarded Jennifer Connell nothing.
I am writing this letter in regards to Brooke Austins Inquiry Paper. In this paper she really has excelled and used her strengths to present a strong argument. Her inquiry paper about Juvenile Delinquency programs and there effectiveness outlines the risks associated and the issues these programs create. In Brooke’s introduction she briefly states the issues that arise from these programs and asks the audience a question to ponder throughout the inquiry.
Mark Zepezauer’s article, “MK-Ultra from the Book the CIAs Greatest Hits” discusses the psychology experiment conducted by the CIA, MK-Ultra. The MK-ultra conducted a study that used mind control on their participants. Zepezauer recounts the events of the CIA tries to defend their stance by claiming they used the method in response to the brainwashing from the Chinese that was happening in the fifties. He says that mind control practices took place prior to 1953, but became popular after the experiment. He continues to explain how the CIA would use drugs, including LSD, and test them on their patients that were unaware of what tests were upon them. Zepezauer reveals that multiple suicides also took place in response to the given substances. He deliberated how the CIA rented out apartments and used prostitutes in their study. They used them to slip the drugs into their client’s pockets and the CIA would look through one-way mirrors to see the client’s response. Once the auditors discovered this, the MK-Ultra shut down and renamed the MKSEARCH. Mark Zepezauer
In Kyle Wein’s article, he explains why he doesn’t believe people with poor grammar shouldn’t be hired. I agree with Wein’s statement because everyone was taught basic grammar, it represents you when text is the only form of communication, and it also gives a first impression when handing in the
The Yankee claimed that, “you could suppose the whole building fell down”. The Yankee’s claim was an Abuse of a Slippery Slope Argument because between the two notions of the boy being innocent and the building falling down, the former can be backed up by evidence and is far more plausible than the latter based purely off of supposition. What he should’ve done was say that if if his only evidence for supposing the defendant was not guilty was because it was possible, then his argument would not be very strong.
In an article written by Patrice Lumumba Simms, it is described that when looking at classic environmentalism so far, most of the policies implemented follow three broad categories. The first is pollution amelioration which targets reduction of pollutants. The second is hazard and risk management which, unsurprisingly, focuses on protecting humans from toxins that are hazardous to human health or the environment. The third, and final, is resource protection and conservation which seeks to prevent over utilization of natural resources and preserve nature. A common response to these categories is that they function as a “rising tide that lifts all boats,” (15) meaning that any type of environmental improvement is going to improve conditions for everyone. When using this argument, there is no problem with the classic environmental thinking because everyone benefits, potentially minority and low-income individuals more than anyone else. However, this argument is false. When creating policies, the EPA and organizations like it usually “do not approach programmatic decision-making with an eye toward ensuring comprehensive protection of every community” (16). For example, when discussing hazardous waste regulation, the EPA has regulations in place to manage disposal. However, many
Beck (2000, 2006, 2007), Bauman (2000), and Standing (2011) constructed this recent concept to explain how old social classes have dissolved in importance to give way to new inequalities, inequalities in risk distribution. Beck even goes as far as calling contemporary societies ‘risk societies’ (Beck, 1992). According to Individualisation theorists, risk is becoming a part of everyday life: through work (i.e. employment flexibility, job flexibility, skill flexibility) (Standing, 2011), education (i.e. greater stress on education and training) (Mythen, 2005), consumption (i.e. risk of climate change, pollution, etc.) or even through the risk of catastrophes (i.e. incidents such as Chernobyl or 9/11) (Beck, 2001). However, through disparities in education, incomes etc., risk is also becoming unequally distributed while giving rise to new inequalities which do not fit into the old class schemas (Standing, 2011).
This includes virtually any governmental action needed to control the threat to the population. Therefore, in order to fulfill that responsibility to ensure the public's health state public health authorities could (as they have in the past) temporarily constrain certain civil liberties. They can require private sector participation in public health objectives, shut down potentially harmful industries, destroy contaminated property, deport or prevent the entry of individuals who may infect others, ration supplies, and control the flow of information (Hodge, 2002).