Behavioral & Social Cognitive Views of Learning

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Postgraduate Diploma in Early Childhood Education Term / Year Course Code Course Title : : : 2012 Autumn CECE 7103 Understanding How Children Learn Dr. Sam Cheung (Tel: 3411-4342; Email: Ms. Paulina Yuen (Tel: 3411-1952; Email: Lecturer In-charge : Lecturer : Lecture 2: Behavioral & Social Cognitive Views of Learning Lecture Highlights:      Definitions of Behavioral Learning Theory Classical Conditioning – Pavlov Operant Conditioning - Skinner Trial-and-error Learning / The Law of Effect - Thorndike Social Learning Theory - Bandura I.  Behavioral Learning Theories: Explanations of learning that focus on external events as the cause of changes in observable behaviors……show more content…
Repeat this process for many times. Bell ringing (NS) + Food (US)  Dog salivates (UR) After Conditioning:  After repeating the process for many times, when the dog hears the bell ring, it will automatically salivate without seeing its food.  Pavlov’s experiments showed that if a previously neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus for many times, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) and be able to produce a response similar to that produced by the unconditioned stimulus.  At the end of the experiment, the bell ringing becomes the conditioned stimulus (CS) and producing saliva becomes the conditioned response (CR).  Bell ringing (CS)  Dog salivates (CR) CECE7103/L2/2012Au 3 e) Other Situations in Classical Conditioning: Generalization  It involves the tendency of a new stimulus similar to the original conditioned stimulus to produce a similar response. For example, the sound of a whistle; the more bell-like the noise, the stronger the dog’s response.  School example: A student is criticized for his poor performance on a biology test. When he begins to prepare for a chemistry test, he becomes so nervous because these two subjects are closely related in the science subjects. Thus, the student’s anxiety generalizes from taking a test in biology to taking a
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