Behaviorism And Its Impact On The Learner

2285 WordsJul 25, 201610 Pages
Behaviorism is a worldview, which operates under a stimulus response principle. Every behavior is caused by an operating condition (external stimuli). Moreover, behaviors can be described without necessarily considering internal states or consciousness of mind. It basically assumes that a learner is passive, reacting to stimuli from the environment. Initially, the learner is a clean slate (tabula rasa) and the shaping of behavior is through positive as well as negative reinforcement. Both the reinforcements raise the possibility that the precursor behavior will occur again. However, both negative and positive punishments reduce the probability of the antecedent behavior happening again. Positive shows that stimulus is being applied while the negative is an indication of stimulus withdrawal. Thus, learning refers to a behavior change in the learner. Many behaviorist studies especially the earliest ones were done through animals and then widespread to human beings like Pavlov 's dog. Behaviorism comes before cognitive worldview and discards structuralism. It is an addition of Rational Positivism. Among the major contributors and creators of behaviorism are Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, B.F. Skinner, Bandura, E. L. Thorndike and Tolman. Keywords: stimulus-response (S-R), Operant conditioning, Methodological behaviorism, behaviorism in philosophy and Classical conditioning. Behaviorism Introduction Behaviorism is the theory, which postulates that the psychology of animals
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