‘Behaviourists Explain Maladaptive Behaviour in Terms of the Learning Principles That Sustain and Maintain It. Discuss This Statement and Show How a Behaviourists Approach to Therapy Is in Stark Contrast to a Psychoanalytic One’

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‘Behaviourists explain maladaptive behaviour in terms of the learning principles that sustain and maintain it. Discuss this statement and show how a behaviourists approach to therapy is in stark contrast to a psychoanalytic one’
Behaviorism was originally founded by John B. Watson who believed that behavior had the means to be measured, trained and changed (1913) The Behavioural theory is firstly based on experiment and secondly by describing how human behaviour is learnt through principles and rules. Maladaptive behaviour is when an individual is unable to adjust to situations; psychologists use this term to describe patterns of emotional disturbance. Both behavioural and psychoanalytic psychologists use this in
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The salivation was now the conditioned response. The dog learnt the association between the food and the bell and the conditioned response was now the learnt behaviour. Pavlov (1927)Watson and Rayner (1920) extends Pavlov’s study as they wanted to see if it applied to humans as well as animals, they done this with their little albert experiment. Albert was a nine month old infant, he was tested on his reactions to various stimuli, he was shown a white rat, and a rabbit, a monkey and various masks, and he showed no fear to any of these stimuli. They noticed that if a hammer was struck against at steel bar behind his head he would be startled and he would burst into tears. The noise was the unconditioned stimuli and Albert crying was the unconditioned response. When Albert was 11 months old the white rat was presented and seconds later the hammer was struck against the steel bar. This was done repeatedly over the next 7 weeks, making Albert burst into tears. The white rat was the neutral stimuli, when paired with the noise it became the conditioned stimuli. When Albert saw the rat he would show fear and cry. Albert learnt the association between the rat and the noise creating a phobia. Watson and Rayner (1920)
Systematic desensitisation is a technique associated with classical conditioning; this can be used to remove maladaptive behaviours like anxiety, panic and fear by substituting the unconditioned response for a conditioned one. If

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