Being Infected with Tuberculosis

2347 WordsFeb 18, 20189 Pages
TB is a disease that infect mostly human’s lung. It can spread through air way. This can be done through coughing or sneezing from TB patients. The bacteria travel in the air and infect healthy people. This disease is commonly occurring in low income countries, deprived areas and big cities in a developed country. There are some factors that contribute to TB which are immigration, social inequalities, HIV infection and misuse of drugs or alcohol (Millet et al., 2012). The TB incidence is increasing when the HIV infection among the population is increasing. In Western Europe, the TB cases occur because of immigration. So, there are different epidemiological pattern in different countries due to different factors that contribute to it (Glaziou et al., 2013). In 2012, there roughly 13% of TB patients were HIV-positive. In Africa, estimation that there is 75% of TB cases with HIV-positive (WHO, 2013). HIV will affect the immune response, which is the cell-mediated immunity that carry out by helper-T cell. HIV-positive patients have lower amount of helper-T cell as compared to HIV-negative patients with TB. This cell is extreme important in defending against TB. HIV infection will accelerate TB infection and the risk of death in HIV-TB co-infected patients is higher (Sharma et al., 2005). Since 1990 the mortality rate of TB is decreased by 45% and the incidence rate is also decreased in major regions of the world. This is aid by the program Stop TB Strategy that organised by
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