The second step in managing patients with CHF is using evidence-based treatment options. Beta-blockers have proven to be effective at increasing left ventricular function; however, the majority of patients are not receiving adequate dosages of the medication. According to Driscoll et al
Disease-specific Data Heart failure (HF) is a debilitating chronic illness that affects a considerable portion of the elderly population. This disease is complicated by its intermittent episodes of decompensation and progressive cardiovascular deterioration both of which have a tremendous impact on a person’s quality of life. Greatly influenced by medication and treatment non-compliance,
DISCUSSION Heart failure, also known as cardiac failure is a terminal stage of heart disease. The mortality rate in patient with heart failure has progressively increasing year by year (5). In Malaysia, the major cause of admission to hospital is mainly due to heart failure with prevalence of 6-10% of
Heart Failure Christy Harding Western Governors University C155- Pathopharmacological Foundations for Advance Nursing Practice Heart failure affects nearly 6 million Americans. It is the leading cause of hospitalization in people older than 65. Roughly 550,000 people are diagnosed with heart failure each year (Emory Healthcare, 2014). Heart failure is a pathologic state where the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the demand of the body’s metabolic needs or when the ventricle’s ability to fill is impaired. It is not a disease, but rather a complex clinical syndrome. The symptoms of heart failure come from pulmonary vascular congestion and inadequate perfusion of the systemic circulation. Individuals experience orthopnea,
Therapeutic measures for a patient with congestive heart failure would be daily weights, dietary sodium restrictions, positioning in high or semi-Fowler’s position, frequent vital signs, oxygen by cannula or mask, medical devices: pacemakers, internal cardiac defibrillator, biventricular cardiac pacemaker, ventricular assist device, medications: digoxin, diuretics, inotropes, nesiritide, beta blockers, surgery: heart valve repair or replacement, coronary
Symptoms of congestive heart failure consist of fatigue, dependent edema, fluid build-up in the lungs, increase in urination because of the extra fluid, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and decreased appetite (Fundukian, 2011). Diagnosis of CHF is done first by physical examination, such as heart rate, and heart sounds or murmurs. If a physician believes more tests are needed, common ones include an electrocardiogram or chest x-ray to detect previous heart attacks, arrhythmia, or heart enlargement, and echocardiogram using ultrasound to image the heart muscle, valves, and blood flow patterns. The physician may also want to do a heart catheterization, to allow the arteries of the heart to be visualized using angiography. Upon getting a diagnosis of CHF, the physician will usually start with asking the patient to change things in their diet, such going to a low sodium diet. They may also want to prescribe medications. Types of medications could include angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, which block formation of angiotensin II hormone, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) to block the action of angiotensin II at the receptor site, and diuretics, just to name a few (Fundukian, 2011).
Patients who have congestive heart failure and do not respond to diuretics may benefit from a combination of several types of diuretic medication, each with a different system of action. Another medication for someone that has congestive heart failure can take Beta-blockers. Side effects include fatigue, cold hands, headache, upset stomach, constipation, diarrhea, dizziness, and shortness of breath. Data reported from 17 studies, researchers came to the conclusion that the risk of death from all causes was 31 percent lower in patients with heart failure who were treated with beta-blockers than in those not receiving such medications. Aldosterone blockers is a form of medication one may take to help slow down the rate of congestive heart failure.This medication can sometimes affect kidney function and can also increase potassium levels. Aldosterone blockers are prescribed to individuals who develop heart failure after a heart attack. Studies show that these medications can reduce the risk of hospitalization and death from cardiovascular disease. The last form of medication is BiDil (isosorbide
Varying patients may present to their clinician or the emergency department for treatment with heart failure. It is important to understand that there is more than one type of heart failure; primarily the focus is placed on diastolic heart failure and systolic heart failure. Depending upon the cause of heart failure and what areas are affected dictates the treatment plan needed. While there are similarities with both kinds of heart failure, there are also differences that can help the clinician distinguish the diagnosis needed to fit the patient. Once a diagnosis is made the clinician can move forward in determining if the patient is at risk for use of diuretics and then look towards prescribing ACEIs, ARBs, and beta-blockers.
I. Congestive Heart Failure Heart failure (HF) is defined as a multifaceted clinical syndrome that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the ventricle to fill with or eject blood. In HF, the heart may not provide tissues with adequate blood for metabolic needs, and cardiac-related elevation of pulmonary or systemic venous pressures may result in organ congestion1. In the United States, HF is increasing in incidence with about 5.1 million people suffering from HF and half of people who develop HF die within 5years 2. Over 75% of existing and new cases occurred in individuals over 65 years of age, < 1% in individuals below 60 years, nearly 10% in those over 80 years of age. HF costs the
Heart failure is a major health problem worldwide, but especially in the United States. The CDC estimates that over 5.7 million Americans are living with heart failure, and that
An elderly male with congestive heart failure was brought to a clinic because he was experiencing atrial fibrillation and had a ventricular response of 110 beats/min with palpitations and shortness of breath1. Medications that he was taking includes angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, Lisinopril, Carvediol, Digoxin, and Furosemide1. His left ventricular ejection
Hi Shoaib, Well written paper on beta blockers in controlling hypertension. In my experience, I had seen more than 80% of patients are prescribed with antihypertensive drugs in their medical chart. A beta blocker is one of the most common drugs in a geriatric setting especially atenolol. Beta blockers are the
Introduction At the conclusion of this case study, the learner will be able to: Identify two common treatment modalities for Second degree heart block Identify a list of uses of, doses and contraindications for giving Beta Blockers. Recognise a Mobitz II heart block rhythm. Over the path of the paper, a definition of Mobitz II heart block will be given a long with what can happen to the rhythm if beta blocker medications are taken at the same time and its treatment.
Approximately 2-3 million Americans, more than one percent of the population, are currently affected by this medical problem with numbers increasing frequently (Drug Store News, 1997). Congestive heart failure tends to be more common in the elderly, men, and also African Americans. Congestive heart failure has become the most common cause for current hospital admissions. Among causing prolonged hospital stays congestive heart failure has a very high mortality rate, which has declined since recent medical advancements.
Heather Horsley Wilkes University School of Nursing Abstract Heart failure (HF) is a chronic progressive disease, arising from structural or functional disorders of the heart, in which incidence increases with age. This review attempts to describe the types and causes of HF while focusing on variable aspects of patient education that have a positive effect on patient outcome and quality of life. Specifically, the potential benefits of this education for a 55 year old male patient diagnosed by transthoracic echocardiogram with chronic systolic heart failure, who has refused physician deemed necessary