The majority of people with an acute Hepatitis C infection often do not know they have the virus and therefore do not get treated. However, if a person realizes that they may have been exposed to the virus – like a healthcare worker who gets a needle stick injury – an acute Hepatitis C infection can be identified early and medication can be administered. Chronic Hepatitis C is defined by the presence of the virus for 6 months or longer. Many people already have chronic Hepatitis C when they’re first diagnosed because they were unknowingly infected with the virus many years ago. Long term infection by the hepatitis C virus can result in liver scarring known as cirrhosis. This scarring can be treated with antiviral medications. People with little to mild scarring, otherwise known as early stage fibrosis, should still consider Hepatitis C treatment to avoid the long-term complications of the disease, even though they may not be at risk for many
According to Creasia and Friberg (2011) there are a multitude of nursing theories and frameworks available. These theories and frameworks guide professional nurses in making decisions and in critical thinking endeavors (Creasia & Friberg, 2011). The previous is generally the rationale behind using any nursing theory or framework. One conceptual nursing model is Neuman’s Systems Model. This model views the patient as an open system that acts and interacts with both the internal and external world (Creasia & Friberg, 2011). The patient is composed of the interrelationships of the following variables: physiological, psychological, developmental, sociocultural, and spiritual variables (Creasia & Friberg, 2011). Health is viewed as systems stability (homeostasis) in this model (Creasia & Friberg, 2011). Stressors cause illness (Creasia & Friberg, 2011).
Nursing practice has revolutionized itself throughout the years. Today we realize the causes of current illnesses as complex and multifaceted (source). In past models, for instance the medical model, the approach was straightforward and neglected the patients active involvement in their care; the patient was viewed as the passive recipient and the doctor, an active agent that “fixed” their patients. ( source). New developed models since then, such as the biopsychosocial model, show us that care focuses on many factors. The model demonstrates understanding of how suffering, disease, and illness can be associated by many factors seen at the different levels in society and the medical sciences (source). Caring for each component is
This research paper is going to review today’s silent killer, the Hepatitis C virus. This paper will talk about the description of the disease, the signs and symptoms, the etiology and risk factors, diagnostic studies, treatments and prognosis of this disease. I had lived with this disease for over ten years before diagnosed so it is important to understand the signs and symptoms so the disease can be identified and a treatment plan can be identified as the sooner it is treated the more likely it will eradicate the disease.
Over the past 30 years nursing has evolved from a task-oriented to a logical and systematic approach to care, using theories and models to guide practice. According to Jasper (2007, p117) theories of decision making in medicine tend to favour logical, precise analytical models which are held to be testable, unambiguous and repeatable, therefore satisfying scientific principles. These represent important ideas of certainty and rationality that are intended to provide a sense of security and reliability. When used correctly a nursing model should give direction to nurses working in a particular area, as it should help them understand more fully the logic behind their actions. It should also act as a guide in decision-making and so reduce conflict within the team of nurses as a whole. This in turn should lead to continuity and consistency of the nursing care received by patients according to Pearson et al (1999,p ).
Although it is alarming about how expensive these drugs may cost, an inescapable idea that would have passed our brains several times already would be “Why should I care?” and that patients are only willing to pay this price because they need it because they are sick. Even if it may seem that we don’t empathize them, the overall perception is that since we don’t have hepatitis C, we would not have to worry about these price tags because we would never have to pay this fee. Because of this, although we may feel sympathy towards these patients, we are rarely able to perceive their problems at a personal level.
A few years ago, Hepatitis C was a scary term for many of us. But, today the medical problem is curable as there are various and advanced ways available. The improvement in the treatment is especially notable because experts have worked harder to obtain this success. Still, there are some significant changes are left and hopefully they will be completed soon. Presently, the HCV treatments get rid of the virus in merely slightly more than half of all sufferers. The medicines also have unnecessary side effects that make it complicated or not possible for some patients to get them. HCV medication online available, but it is not worthy to take them without the concern of the doctor.
If Hepatitis C is caught in the early stages it is curable with medication. Watson points out that the medications that is used to treat Hepatitis C is very expensive and that people have a hard time paying for the cost. This results in people not getting the treatment due to the cost and this ultimately results in the person getting chronic Hepatitis C. Watson explains, “chronic Hepatitis C leads to cirrhosis of the liver, liver cancer or scarring of the liver” (personal communication, February 27, 2017). Watson states that within the past couple of years, drug companies have taken the cost of these medications into consideration and have set up payment plan options for people who suffer from Hepatitis C. Along with, some drug companies are now covering the entire cost of the medications depending on the person’s income level. Another development that has recently emerged is financial counselors. Watson explains that, “once a person tests positive for Hepatitis C they will be notified, control measures will be discussed and the nurse will refer them out to a financial counselor to figure out which route is best for them to get treatment” (personal communication, February 27, 2017). Surry County Health and Nutrition Center work closely with the financial counselors through Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center to get these
KV is a patient who was recently diagnosed with Hepatitis C. She is a 27 year old, English speaking, Caucasian female who grew up and still lives in Minnesota. KV is a bartender and nursing student who loves anything outdoors, cooking, gardening, and being with family and friends. KV contracted this disease from her previous partner and is now single. She has plans of marrying and having kids someday in the future. She has a support base consisting of her family and friends. KV’s parents and family are very involved in all aspects of her life and have supported her through this diagnosis. KV has shown an interest and readiness to learn, which she does best, hands-on. Being a college student, KV is cognitive about her situation and has the capability to understand what is happening to her body and the material that I will teach her.
Mishel’s Uncertainty of Illness Theory is a middle-range theory (Black, 2014). This means the theory is not overly broad or narrow. The theory was developed from studying men with prostate cancer who were watchfully waiting for the advancing signs of their disease (Black, 2014). The theory has three main components, which incorporate: the antecedents of uncertainty, impaired cognitive appraisal, and coping with uncertainty in illness (Neville, 2003). The antecedents of Mishel’s theory are the stimulus frame, cognitive capacities and event congruence (Neville, 2003). The stimulus frame concerns three parts including: symptom pattern, event familiarity and event congruency (Neville, 2003). Symptom pattern may be when symptoms of
Many people don’t understand how dangerous Hepatitis C is because it is not commonly known about as much as Hepatitis A or B. This disease is however very serious. Although frequently asymptomatic in time the virus can lead to cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver failure. Symptoms of HCV are jaundice (yellowing of the eyes), stomach pain, nausea and fatigue. Treatment options for the disease, if caught early enough is a combination of medications or depending on the degree of damage, a liver transplant. ”For some people, hepatitis C is a short-term illness but for 70%-85% of people who become infected with
Hepatitis C is a prevalent health care problem. According to the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2016), approximately 2.7-3.9 million of the adult population in the United States is infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Some groups of people are at risk for Hepatitis C infection, including current injection drug users, people who received the blood transfusion before 1992, organ recipients from a donor who tested positive for hepatitis C virus, hemodialysis patients, and children born to a hepatitis C mother (CDC, 2016). Hepatitis C causes embarrassment and isolation from the society. Self-esteem and understanding of the family, friend and community will motivate the patient to have a good quality life in society. This
As a nursing student, my understanding of different illnesses is often challenged in both clinical practice and class. Very rarely, is my ability to interpret the illness experience from the patient’s point of view questioned. I tend to overlook the uneasiness and the stress the patient may be experiencing, as I as more fixated on providing the appropriate care for the patient. Uncertainty is a prevailing theme amongst not only the patient but their families as well, when dealing with an illness. Mishel’s Uncertainty in Illness Theory can help explore the uncertainties of the illness experience. Relating one of my own clinical experiences to the theory, provides the element of self-reflection which can ultimately help me analyze my actions.
Mishel 's Uncertainty in Illness Theory is a mid-range theory, created using a bi-directional process where the theory informed and was informed by research. The theory looks at how uncertainty is capable of influencing a patient 's ability to become accustomed to their sickness and the outcome of it. People faced with uncertainty may not know what the outcome of their illness will be or they may be living with the possibility that their illness will come back. Either way, the theory examines how people progress and change while dealing with uncertainty.
Hepatitis C has been referred to as a "Silent Epidemic," since it usually progresses slowly over many years. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C are not aware of any noticeable symptoms for as long as one to two decades after they are infected. In fact, by the time symptoms appear, the virus has probably already begun to damage the liver. If the liver is injured and stops functioning, death will always be the outcome (Lieber). Liver failure from chronic hepatitis C is one of the most common causes of liver transplants in the United States.