Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth Essay

3366 Words14 Pages
Midterm Review
1.1 Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth
1. Archeologists believe that the decisive differentiation between humans and apes occurred from 6 to 8 million years ago.
2. They have interpreted to different DNA analysis of bone fragments to show bipedalism. From the creature Ardepithecus ramidus, many different species of humans have developed from there.
3. Humans first appear on Earth in the Paleolithic Age where they inhabited all continents except for Antarctica. Homo sapiens had forelimbs freed from walking and opposable thumbs and also the development of the large brain.
4. The tools were created from wood, bone, and stone. They were created by breaking off the edges of stone cores to cr3eate points or cutting
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There were many domesticated crops such as corn, rice, potatoes, squash and peppers. As for animals there are animals such as goats, sheep, cows, water buffalo, chickens, camels, horses and pigs are just some of them.
13. They had to work cooperatively to create space and create water control systems to grow crops in those empty lands.
14. They impacted environmental diversity and domesticating numerous amounts of animals on grasslands which lead to erosion.
15. They lead to more reliable and abundant amount of food supplies which helped increase the population.
16. Social effects that occurred is surpluses of food and other goods led to the specialization of labor or division of labor, that also included different classes of artisans and warriors and also the development of the elites.
17. Pottery, plows, woven textiles, metallurgy, wheels and vehicles with wheels are some technological innovations that helped in the growth of agriculture.
1.3 The Development and Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral, and Urban Societies
18. To be a civilization, it need to have generation of reliable surpluses, highly specialized occupations, clear social class distinctions, growth of cities, complex and formal governments, long-distance trade, and lastly organized writing systems. A civilization is used to describe the idea of developing an understanding of the changing nature of early human social organization.
19. They had more of a demand for
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