Bio 202 Essay

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Study guide for Lecture Exam II Bio 202 (Heart, BV’s and Respiratory system)
1. The pulmonary circuit is supplied by which ‘side” of the heart? The systemic circuit? The right atrium
2. What is the functional difference between desmosomes and gap junctions? Desmosomes prevent adjacent cells from separating during contraction and gap junctions allow ions to pass from cell to cell transmitting current across the entire heart

3. What are the different effects of the PNS and SNS on heart rate? Parasympathetic slows heart rate SNS increases heart rate
4. Atrial hypertrophy would probably have what effect on an electrocardiogram? *spike the p wave

5. What is the function of the papilary muscles? i.e. what do they prevent? pappilary
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How does venous return increase stroke volume? increase venous return to heart leads increase filling of ventricle of heart this increased filling by starling law leads more forceful contraction so stroke volume ie amount of blood ejected by single heart beat increases

32. The volume of blood ejected by each ventricle in one minute is called what? Cardiac output
33. The Frank-Starling law of the heart states that stroke volume is proportional to what? Volume of blood filling in the heart

34. Why are arteries sometimes called the resistance vessels? More pressure is required to push blood through a constricted vessel than through a dilated one. The force opposing blood flow is called resistance (R) , and arterioles are therefore called resistance vessels

35. Compare and contrast the tunics of the arteries and the veins.

Study guide for exam II Allison Hays Ph.D. Spring 2012 Anatomy & Physiology 202 *

36. The outermost wall of large arteries and veins contains a special vascular structure called what? Tunica externa*
37. At any given time, most blood is in what vessels? (arteries or veins?) arteries
38. List all possible circulatory routes from the heart, i.e. heart → _arteries → _arterial anastomosis → _capillary bed → _veins → _heart *
39. Vasomotion is associated with the presence of what cell type? endothileal

40. What is the mean arterial pressure for a person with 110 and 65 mm Hg as systolic
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