Bio Frq

1509 Words May 10th, 2011 7 Pages
Liuyi Bian
P2
1. The physical structure of a protein often reflects and affects its function.

(a) Describe THREE types of chemical bonds/interactions found in proteins. For each type, describe its role in determining protein structure. Different types of bonds/interactions in proteins lead to different kinds of structures. Three of the most commonly known chemical bonds in proteins include the hydrogen bond, the covalent bond, and the ionic bond. In hydrogen bonds, hydrogen interacts with oxygen, nitrogen, or fluorine to form either the alpha helix, or the beta sheet, which in turn determines its secondary, tertiary, or quaternary structure. Another type of bonds, the covalent bond, links amino acids together by sharing electrons;
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However, when it gets to about 15 meters, a decrease in net productivity is evident due to a decrease in light, causing a decrease in rate of photosynthesis. Then, at when water is about 20 meters deep, photosynthetic rate equals the respiration rate, meaning no net primary productivity can be seen. Lastly, at places deeper than 40 meters, photosynthetic rate falls under 0, meaning photosynthesis occur less than respiration.

(d) Describe how the relationship between net primary productivity and depth would be expected to differ if new data were collected in mid-summer from the same pond. Explain your prediction. Due to excess of amount of sunlight during summer time, the overall net primary productivity would increase, meaning the rate of photosynthesis would increase because sunlight could provide more nutrient to organisms at deeper site of the water.

3. Regulation is an important aspect of all biological processes. For FOUR of the following processes, describe the specific role of the regulator and discuss how the process will be altered if the regulation is disrupted. In a cell cycle, there are specific checkpoints between each phases caused by the occurrence of cyclin. Cyclin determines how concentration flunctuatues. If the regulation is disrupted by a decreasein cyclin, there would be no mitosis, meaning the cell cycle would continuously go thre G0 phase. However, if there is an increase

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