All living things contain some form of organic macromolecules including: Lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. All of these organic molecules are alike in the sense that is they are made up of bonded elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and to smaller quantities nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur. The macromolecules each contain large long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms and often consists of repeating smaller molecules bonded together in a repeating pattern (polymers). To test whether a specific solid white substance is a protein is simple due to the unique chains found in the respective type of macromolecule. To test if the substance is a carbohydrate, two tests could be performed on separate samples of the object. First,
4. Selection If feeding efficiency and reproduction have a direct correlation, and a population started with equal proportions of individuals with each of three feeding types, metal spoon, metal knife, and plastic fork, the frequency of the population with metal spoons as their feeding structure will increase in the next generation.
Over the course of this lab, our class performed a transformation on bacteria, altering its DNA to cause it to fluoresce when exposed to UV light. Transformations, the process of taking in foreign DNA, are common procedures in the field of biotechnology, the exploration of life processes to develop new technologies. Biotechnology applies recombinant DNA technology, which is DNA made from two or more organisms, to improve organisms and solve issues. Scientists use plasmids, circular pieces of DNA, to “cut and paste” genes into other organisms. Researchers often use GFP, or green fluorescent protein, in their experiments and procedures. GFP naturally occurs in jellyfish causing them to glow green under UV light. Scientists worked with GFP when designing GloFish. Their original plan was to create a fish that could signal pollution in water, but they ended up developing a beautiful, glowing pet fish which is now sold throughout the U.S. We made
The enzymes that are being used in this lab, whichever catalase it may be, has an optimal or room temperature of 37°C. When the the chosen enzyme catalase is exposed to hydrogen peroxide, it begins to decompose into the water mixed with the oxygen gas in the air. This means that when an enzyme is damaged, it is no longer able to work as a catalyzer in a chemical reaction.
An association between enzyme production, gene copy number, and gene evolution was explored by conducting analysis of the salivary amylase enzyme, AMY1A gene copy number, and the ancestral starch consumption in Homo Sapiens (Tracey 2017, p.22). It was hypothesized that the relative amount of starch consumption was very high for my personal ancestral diet, thus my AMY1 diploid gene copy number in my genome and salivary amylase concentration would be significantly higher than the population mean. With a population of 28 subjects (n=28), individual saliva samples were collected and compared to a calibration curve to determine the approximate amylase concentration by analyzing absorbance values. Individual samples of buccal cheek cells were
Microbiology involves the study of microbes and their relevant scientific roles. The purpose of this lab report is to use the methods and techniques acquired from the microbiology course to identify an unknown bacterium. The assigned culture for this report is Unknown 28. Various laboratory techniques were performed in this process in order to draw conclusions as to what microorganism the unknown sample may contain.
Enzymes are catalysts that function to speed up reactions; for example, the enzyme sucrose speeds up the hydrolysis of sucrose, which breaks down into glucose and fructose. They speed up reactions but are not consumed by the reaction that is taking place. The most important of the enzyme is the shape as it determines which type of reaction the enzyme speeds up. Enzymes work by passing/lowering and energy barrier and in doing so; they need to bind to substrates via the active. Once they do, the reaction speeds up so much more quickly than it would without the enzyme. Coenzymes and cofactors aid the enzyme when it comes to binding with the substrate. They change the shape of the active site so the substrate can bind properly and perform its function.
1) Observation: no bugs were found except small, black, gnats were all close to the ground.
Travis Carlton Bio Lab 2 4/5/2018 1a. Carboxyl functional group which is an acid sugar 1b. Aldehyde functional group which belongs to carbohydrates 1c. Alcohol functional group which belongs to carbohydrates 2a. Positive (red) 2b. Negative (blue) 2c. Negative (blue) 2d. Negative (dark blue) 2e. Negative (green/yellow) 2f. Positive (red) 3a. Negative (red brown/amber) 3b. Negative (brown) 3c. Positive (black) 3d. Positive (black) 3e. Positive (dark brown) 3f. Positive (dark brown) 3g. Positive (milky dark brown) Ps: the iodine was already really dark so it was very hard to see much difference between the control and the others.
The hypothesis for this situation is that the plant that is not doing very well is that it is not getting the same amount of sun as the plant that was doing really well. Another possibility is that it’s not getting enough water as the other plant so it could not be doing as well because of those two
2. Measure 3ml of 25% catalase concentration to set up for the first trial. 3. Measure 15ml of 10V hydrogen peroxide to set up for the first trial. 4. Using a 5ml measuring cylinder, measure 5ml of the 15ml of hydrogen peroxide, into each of the three measuring cylinders for each trial.
Introduction: In this lab, we studied biomolecules. Biomolecules are molecules that are existent in all living organisms. The four biomolecules, we are learning in class are proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acid. The three biomolecules being addressed in the lab are proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. Biomolecules are organic molecules because they contain carbon and hydrogen, as organic molecules always contain carbon and hydrogen. Biomolecules are important because they make up our bodies entirely and are the reason our bodies continue to function. Proteins have many functions. They make up hair and nails, and collagen, which lend support to ligaments, tendons, and skin. Enzymes, another type of protein, speed chemical reactions
We decided to do the McMush Lab. The lab was designed to see the biomolecules inside an average McDonald’s Happy Meal. We decided to use a meal we have all had and to see what we were eating. Our results showed certain biomolecules.
Identification of Macromolecules Introduction The most common macromolecules found in living organisms are lipids, carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids. Briefly, the meaning of macromolecules is that they normally contain two or more molecules in them and their main functions are to store energy, information and much more. Most foods are known to be combinations of macromolecules. While some of these compounds can be detected by taste tests, many cannot. Scientists then use certain tests to determine the presence of macromolecules.
Introduction/Background: Transcription in eukaryotes is one of the most vital processes of life that involves a highly controlled and regulated systematic series of events that is mediated through various key factors. The process of transcription occurs when the genetic information stored within DNA becomes activated through the synthesis of complementary mRNA