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Biochemistry Task 4 00046260

1. Two features that make all enzymes catalysts are that they increases the rate in chemical reaction without being used or modified and the thermodynamic properties of the reaction do not change (Hudon-Miller, 2012).

(Gresham HS IB Biology, 2007)
(Shmoop Editorial Team, 2008)

4. The first two steps of fructose metabolism in the liver is fructose is broken down by fructokinase into fructose -1-phosphate substrate and then Aldolase B converts fructose-1-phostpate into DHAP-glyeraldehyde product. At this step, it can go into glycolysis and make ATP or gluconegenesis to eventually make glycogen (Hudon-Miller, 2012).

a. With the lack of
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NADH will donate an electron to complex one and become NAD+. FAD2 will donate its electron to complex 2 and becomes FAD. Coenzyme Q accepts electrons from complex to 1 and 2 and donates to complex 3. Then complex 3 will transport its electron using the protein cytochrome C to complex 4. That electron will go to oxygen and form water as its product. Complex1, 3, and 4 in the process of transferring electrons will pump out Hydrogen ions to the other side of membrane. Lots of hydrogen ions are made and need to go somewhere where there is not a lot of them. ATP synthase will allow these hydrogen ions to go to the matrix in a controlled manner. The energy from these hydrogen ions will aid ADP and phosphate to make ATP. The formation of ATP in this process is called oxidative phosphorylation. The energy used in NADH and FAD2 is used to form the proton gradient (Sanders, 2013).

C. References

Citric acid cycle with aconitate 2.svg. (2008, September 12). Retrieved January 3, 2016, from Enzymes in Detail - Shmoop Biology. Retrieved January 3, 2016, from
Gresham HS IB Biology. (2007) Retrieved from
Hudon-MIller, S. (2013). Cori cycle. Retrieved from
Hudon-Miller, S.

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