Bioinformatics - Solving Biological Problems Using DNA and Amino Acid Sequences

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Bioinformatics - Solving Biological Problems Using DNA and Amino Acid Sequences

1. Introduction

In the wake of Genomic revolution, biology that used to be a lab-based science has transformed to embrace Information science. Human Genome Project is a 13-year project focusing on identifying approximately 30,000 genes in human DNA. The information found is stored in databases, analyzed and used for different purposes like simplifying diagnosis of disease, earlier detection of genetic predisposition to specific disease, custom drugs, gene therapy, gene replacement technologies [1]. Technological advancement has been one of the contributors for the early completion of this project.

Computer technology has facilitated in
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It is a new science that has been stimulated by recent work on gene sequences such as the Human Genome Project, designed to sequence all of the human chromosomes. In addition to the Human Genome Project, there has been a sudden growth of quantitative data in biology such as protein sequences, protein 3-D structures, metabolic pathway databases. This has made data capture, data warehousing and data mining to become major issues for biotechnology and biological scientists.

Bioinformatics applies the latest database techniques and smart mathematical algorithms to gene and protein sequence information in the search for new medical drug leads. It solves complex problems in life sciences and particularly in biotechnology.

Functional genomics, biomolecular structure, protein analysis, cell metabolism, bio-diversity, drug design and vaccine design are some of the areas in which bioinformatics is an integral part. Advancement in information technology, particularly the Internet are being used to gather and assess information in biology and biotechnology

It combines the storage and retrieval of complex biological data, with analysis and annotation of biological information. IT tools automate many of the processes, some of which take large amounts of computing power.

The most pressing tasks in bioinformatics involve the analysis of sequence information. Computational Biology is the name given to this process,
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