Dr. N.A.S states that one of the antiretrovirals blocks translation of RNA into the proteins required to make new viruses. Some of the current antiretrovirals include reverse transcriptase, fusion and entry, protease, and integrase inhibitors;6,10 however there is not an inhibitor that blocks translation of rna into proteins on the market. Targeting inhibitors specific to HIV has made ARVs increasingly effective and less harmful to humans.
As have been described above, HIV can have a potential effect on immunological cells, which are important to protect the body from additional infections such as Tuberculosis (TB), Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and other viral or bacterial infections. An effective treatment is needed to reconstruct what HIV has damaged. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a common treatment to stop the viral replication and decrease the disease progression, which may lead to a vast decline of the morbidity and mortality. The standard treatment involves a combination of at least three drugs; often known as a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) where the most common types are Nucleoside reverse transcriptase
Since the arrival of triple therapy, the challenge of sustained and complete viral suppression has been solved for the majority of patients . The major limiting factors for improving the long-term success of ART are tolerability and convenient pill burden . The latest class of the antiretroviral drug developed are Integrase inhibitors (INI). Dolutegravir (DTG) is an Integrase inhibitor, particularly focused on maintaining a favorable safety profile and a high efficiency rate, within a single-tablet regime (STR), it improves resistance barrier and allowing co-formulation with an NRTI backbone. Dolutegravir has been compared against both other classes of HIV anti-retrovirals as well as other integrase nuclear strand inhibitors. In August 2013, DTG was approved by FDA for its use in both patients who have never taken ART (ART-naïve) and patients who have taken ART (ART-experienced) . It is predicted that very soon a STR containing Dolutegravir (DTG), abacavir (ABC) and lamivudine (3TC) will become
When the HIV virus was identified in the 1980’s, many companies began to search for an antiviral drug but Burroughs Wellcome led the research effort. There were three drugs being tested by other companies as well including, AZT by Burroughs Wellcome, DDI by Bristol Myers and DDC by Hoffman-LaRoche. These drugs inhibit reproduction of HIV and slow the damage it causes.
One of the first approved therapies for the treatment of HIV was a modified DNA base pair of thymidine that replaced the terminal hydroxyl (-OH) group with an azido (-N3).
Description: HIV, also known as human immunodeficiency virus, attacks the immune system allowing the patient's body to not be able to protect itself. “HIV attacks and destroys the infection-fighting CD4 cells of the immune system. The loss of CD4 cells makes it difficult for the body to fight infections and certain cancers. Without treatment, HIV can gradually destroy the immune system and advance to AIDS” (National Health Institute). The disease was believed to originated in the Congo during the 1900’s, but now is present
From study of United Nations, there were 40 million people in the world living with infection of HIV. Sadly, seventy percent, or 28 million of them lived in sub–Saharan Africa; there are countries in that area have forty percent of population infected and living their life with despair. HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) could destroy the immune system that our bodies use to fight off diseases in 10 years; breaking down of the immune system means that we are unable to fight the infections and causes death. In early 1990’s, GSK (GlaxoSmithKline), BMS (Bristol-Myers Squibb) and some other companies developed a series of medicine which could attack HIV in patient’s body; and later in 1996, Dr. David Ho discovered that by taking a combination of
This paper will discuss the current efforts at an HIV vaccine including different approaches to solving the vaccine problem and how close scientists are. Scientists have been struggling with a HIV vaccine for a while. One solution is a drug that has enhanced and extended the lives of people with HIV/Aids. Other scientists have similar methods to solving the Vaccine problem with clinical trials and patients. However the solutions suggested in my literature review also say that they have difficulties with following through.
Even though there is a rapid advancement in medical inventions, still the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the most challenging virus that will drag the human lives to the deadly disease acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It spreads its wings all over. HIV cannot be cured, but it can be prevented. It has become the greatest life threatening disease and affects unbelievably high percent of human beings. Nowadays, besides other deadly diseases, HIV/AIDS becomes more complex and crucial health issue that challenges several medical inventions. Several contributors cause this deadly virus and disease such as promiscuity, homosexuality, female circumcision, sugar daddies, sexual crime, rape, prostitution, cultural
The HIV life cycle occurs in six stages namely; Fusion, Reverse transcription, Integration, transcription, assembly, and budding. Inorder for the virus to proceed to each stage and continue to replicate into new viral cells, it requires catalytic enzymes such as reverse transcriptase (RT), Intergrase (IG), and protease (PT). These replicating enzymes and cycle phases have been identified as potential therapeutic drug targets for HIV-therapy (Fig 2), therefore leading to the development of novel anti-retroviral drugs as stated below;
However, there is a light over the horizon. Researcher’s at the University of Pennsylvania have found an answer to leukemia’s call for a fight. They answer this call by using harmless modified version of HIV. These researchers have modified the harmless HIV so that once it is injected to the body, it seeks out and destroys
Recently in Cuba a new and aggressive strain of HIV has been discovered and this strain causes an early development of AIDS in people within 3 years of being infected with HIV. Usually it takes five to ten years for a person with HIV to progress to AIDS but only if the person is not under anti-retroviral therapy treatment. Individuals who are HIV positive usually don’t feel or look sick immediately which is why they do not take ART treatment during the clinical latency stage of the infection. The new “recombinant” strain of HIV takes advantage of this situation by causing a rapid progression of HIV to AIDS and cutting short the time needed for HIV positive patients to exhibit early symptoms, which could help them be aware of their infection
HIV has been a life destroying disease since the early 1980s. Originally discovered in gay men, it was once thought to only effect homosexuals. Thankfully to great efforts on research and outbreaks in hemophiliacs, it is now associated with other social groups outside of the gay community. The risks of contracting this disease are still high among gay men, highly sexually active individuals (hetero-, homo-, and bi- sexual), intravenous drug users, and health care professionals. By understanding the biological make up of the disease researchers have been able to come up with many options to treating the disease, its progression into AIDs, and other infections that can occur
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) is the causative agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). AIDS is characterized by a severely compromised immune system and the occurrence of life-threatening opportunistic infections. The first cases of AIDS were documented in 1981 and the isolation of HIV from a patient was described two years later.1,2 Since then, HIV/AIDS has evolved into a global pandemic. According to a report from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS published in 2016, over 36.7 million people are living with HIV/AIDS worldwide and 1.1 million HIV/AIDS-related deaths as well as 2.1 million new infections occur annually.3 Due to major efforts to raise HIV/AIDS awareness and prevent new infections, the annual number of new infections is slowly decreasing in many regions of the world, including Western and Southern Africa.3 However, infection rates have remained relatively constant in North America in recent years and have increased by over 50% in other regions, such as Eastern Europe and Central Asia.3 Despite major advances in biomedical research, a vaccine or a cure remains elusive.
The HIV-1 life cycle is complicated and its period and result is contingent upon the target cell type and cell activation. In the beginning, HIV-1 enters the cells without producing instant damage but by entering the cells it can provoke intracellular signal cascades, which may assist the progress of viral replication. The external glycoprotein (gp120) and the transmembrane protein (gp141) are two molecules on the HIV-1 envelope that form the spikes on the virion’s surface. In the entry process, gp120 first attaches to the CD4+ receptor and then attaches to the cell membrane. Interactions between the virus and chemokine co-receptors will cause permanent conformational changes. The fusion event will occur within minutes by pore formation and it will discharge the viral core into the cell cytoplasm. Once the core dismantles, the viral genome will be reverse transcribed into DNA by the virus’ own reverse transcriptase enzyme. Viral variants may develop at the time of this process because reverse transcriptase is error prone. During the midpoint of infection, both the viral protein integrase and the host DNA repair enzymes will inject the viral genome into the active domain of the host’s chromosomal DNA. Lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) is an integrase binding host factor that assists the progress of integration, which converts the cell into a virus producer. In the late stages, production of viral particles will need both host driven and virus driven