Brain chemistry is a detailed system that helps the brain to interact with the chemicals that moves important around the brain. Brain chemistry changes depending on what substance or how much of the substance is used. These changes can indicate signs of the beginning of an addiction over time if the drug use begins to get worst it can lead to dramatic changes in the brains over all chemistry. This example supports the theory of brain change ”‘when we elevated levels of ΔFosB in the NAc, the mice exhibited behaviors that are considered reliable indicators that exposing people to the same conditions would cause addiction: They showed more sensitivity to the drug (responded to doses one-third those required to produce a response in normal animals), self-administered more drug, and displayed greater drive (or craving) for cocaine (they worked two to three times as hard to get the drug) ().” The opposing side stated this as their disagreement “human psychology is simply the reflection of human neurophysiology. Thus, for instance, although the authors claim that their account of addiction is relatively 'skeptical,' and has less explanatory power than that of their opponents, they nevertheless seem to accept at least the possibility of a complete account, which will only come about as a result of 'further advances in biological and psychological science (Foxcroft, L. J.
Among the numerous definitions for addiction, there lies yet another to define it from a biochemical perspective. Milkman (1983) defines it as “self-induced changes in neurotransmission that result in social problem behaviors." This definition encompasses the psychological, biochemical and social aspects of addictive processes. It is not limited to substance abuse and can be applied to any activity characterized by compulsion, loss of control and continuation of the substance despite harm. This has helped investigators gain a better understanding of the nature of addiction.
The biopsychosocial model doesn’t rely on one factor as some of the other theories do. It would appear to be a more suitable means of diagnosing why someone has become addicted, as it has a multifaceted approach which incorporates social, cultural, physical and psychological factors ( Donovan & Marlatt, 2005).
According to Leshner (1998) at its core, addiction is actually a brain disease. There are many factors that come into consideration with addiction which are specific to each individual such as their physiological state, his or her genetics, environmental and societal situation, and how he or she is embedded into society comes together in the end. Some of these contributing factors can be controlled or modified in order to treat an addiction, while other cannot be modified such as genetics and some psychological states. These two key factors are those that researchers in both the medical and psychology fields have studied, to determine better treatment options as they can present a barrier in creating effective addiction management
First, the anthropological study of addiction has helped pinpoint who would be more prone to an addiction and brought forth the concept that since addiction was a learned behavior, it could also be unlearned. Primarily, ethnographic studies show that the identities of drug users are culturally and socially influenced (Singer, 2012). According to this research, it is evident that addictions have strong ties to one’s society and culture. In addition, anthropologist Margaret Mead popularized the concept of nature versus nature. According to her, addiction is a learned
The disease model of addiction and the moral model of addiction provide completely different explanation for the tendency of substance abuse. The disease model of addiction predates to 1784 when the American physician Benjamin Rush published a pamphlet which discussed alcoholism in medical terms and outlined treatments for what he considered was a “disease” (Atkins, 2014, p. 52). This model of addiction generally argues that it is not the individuals fault for their addiction to drugs and that not all, but some people, will inevitably become addicts in the future (p. 52). Inversely, the moral model of addiction does not view addiction as something that an individual “cannot control,” rather this model looks at addiction as something that an individual can certainly control but that the individual does not chose to because of “weak moral character” (p.52). Although both of these models have been, and still are, widely applied to other substances, the most common substance that it was used was for alcohol.
Although, there are many efforts to reduce the stigma of addiction, false concepts among individuals still persist. Many individuals may describe drug addicts as “people who are morally weak and cannot control their impulses”, or simply just “people who cannot get their life together”. Such misconceptions suggesting that
The biological aspect of addiction takes into account the genetic and inherited components of addiction, as well as the effects of addiction on the body itself. It also includes the neurobiological and neurobehavioral theories and studies, which are becoming the most popular ways in studying addiction. The physical component of addiction primarily relies on the dependence of the substance, the tolerance that the body creates as a result, and the experience of withdrawal symptoms. The psychological
Addictions are a diverse set of common and complex diseases that are to some extent tied together by shared genetic and environmental factors. Addiction includes alcohol use disorders, cannabis and cocaine use disorders, nicotine dependence, as well as non-substance–related behaviors. Both genetic and environmental variables contribute to the use and abuse of addictive substances, which may eventually lead to addiction.
There are many models and theories which attempt to explain the causes of substance misuse and dependence. They range from those which highlight the importance of genetic and biological factors to those which stress social and psychological factors and those which may consider the ‘blame’ to be that of the dependent individual (Rassool 2009).
The disease model of addiction rests on three primary assumptions predisposition to use a drug, loss of control over use, and progression (Krivanek, 1988, p.202). These physiological alterations cause an undeniable desire to take more drugs (McNeece & DiNitto, 2012). Addicts are viewed as individuals with an incurable disease with drug addiction as the symptom. The disease model argues users cannot be held accountable for their addictions (Kirvanek, 1988).
Genetic factors, such as having a family history of drug abuse, has a major influence on the likelihood that someone will fall into a cycle of drug abuse and addiction (Volkow, 2007; Horvath et al., 2013). From a biological perspective, we address issues by attending to the underlying biological cause. Since we know that addiction can be influenced by chemical changes in the brain, we can combat it and prevent relapse by restoring brain chemistry through the use of medications, such as those that eliminate the pleasurable effects of drugs, and ideally through total abstinence from drugs (Horvath et al.,
The three models of addiction examined in this week’s readings include the medical model, the psychosocial model, and the disease of the human spirit model. The medical model “rests on the assumption that disease states are the result of a biological dysfunction, possibly one on the cellular or even molecular level” (Doweiko, 2012, p. 333). Many consider this model and “maintain that much of human behavior is based on the interaction between the individual’s biological predisposition and the environment” (Doweiko, 2012, p. 333). Individuals under this model view free will “as an illusion” (Doweiko, 2012, p. 333). There is controversy regarding this model as “to the degree to which the
Addiction is like all behaviours “the business of the brain”. Addictions are compulsive physical and psychological needs from habit-forming sustenances like nicotine, alcohol, and drugs. Being occupied with or involved in such activities, leads a person who uses them again and again to become tolerant and dependent eventually experiencing withdrawal. (Molintas, 2006).
Addiction is regarded as having a multitude of causations and contributing factors. No single specific component or model can accurately predict a person’s substance use behavior (Clinton & Scalise, 2013). Substance use disorders are a reflection of the impact of person-specific biological, psychological, and social influences. Understanding an individual’s spiritual beliefs and the role spirituality plays in a person’s susceptibility to addiction is also necessary. If a spirituality component is absent in a person's life, addiction could fill that void (Doweiko, 2015). Substance