Exam 1 Study guide
Chapter 1: Biology and Tree of Life
• What are the five fundamental characteristics of all living organisms?
- Energy - all organisms acquire and use energy
- Cells - made up of membrane-bound cells
- Information - process heredity info. encoded in genes as well as info. from environment - Replication - all are capable of reproduction
- Evolution - populations of organisms are continuing to evolve
• What is the cell theory?
- All organisms are made of cells (pattern), and
- All cells come from pre-existing cells (process)
• What are the three major groups of organisms?
- Eukaryotes - Eukarya
- Prokaryotes - Bacteria/Archaea
• What is a phylogenic tree?
-A phylogenetic tree reflects…show more content…
Coelomates have an enclosed body cavity, which means advance muscle structure, enhanced locomotor capabilities, and more structural integrity.
* Fluid – filled cavity allowed for the evolution of a hydrostatic skeleton for movement (evolved out of animals having a coelom)
• What is the difference between protostomes and deuterostomes?
Protostomes (arthropods, mollusks, and worms): Pore becomes mouth Deuterostomes (chordates and echinoderms): Pore becomes anus
• What are the different feeding types?
Suspension feeder – “filter feeder”: capture food by filtering out particles suspended in air or water (ex. baleen whale and krill shrimp)
Deposit feeder – eat their way through substrate (ex. worms)
Fluid feeders – suck or mop up liquids like nectar, blood, plant sap, etc (ex. hummingbirds)
Mass feeders – take chunks of food into their mouths (ex. humans)
Chapter 5: Evolution by Natural Selection
• What is the evolutionary theory? According to evolutionary theory, species: 1. Change through time 2. Are related by common ancestry
• What are vestigial traits? Incompletely developed/ non-functioning structure
• What is structural homology? Adult morphology [same bones, different sizes and places]
• What is genetic homology? DNA sequences
• What is developmental homology? Embryos
• What are the four steps of Natural selection?