Biology : Cell Biology, Normal Function

1358 Words May 1st, 2016 6 Pages
PM331 Essay: Exosomes, their cell biology, normal function in the cell, and role in disease.
Study of exosomes has become popular in recent years, exosomes which are mainly found in body fluids such as blood and urine may play a role in cell biology and in the immune system. In eukaryotes, some cells are responsible for receiving signals via chemokines or cytokines, taking up nutrients and secreting proteins into extracellular space, endocytosis and exocytosis are then involved.
Exosomes Biology:
Endosomal multivesicular bodies (MVBs) can either fuse with lysosomes for degradation of unwanted materials or work as storage for MHC class II molecules in dendritic cells. MVBs can also fuse with plasma membrane, resulting in the release of vesicles called exosomes into the extracellular environment as a carrier destined for simulations, since exosomes can be taken up by other cells via phagocytosis. Various cell types such as hematopoietic cells, mast cells and lymphocytes undergo the same mechanism in order to release exosomes. (Keller et al., 2006)
Exosomes are membranous vesicles enclosed in lipid bilayers with diameter of 30-100nm and are responsible in carrying cytoplasmic proteins such as Rab proteins and actin-binding proteins and signal transduction molecules such as G-proteins and protein kinases, as well as some heat-shock proteins like Hsp70 and tetraspanins like CD9 [5-30]. Exosomal proteins can directly represent the specific profiles of their cells of origin, for…

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