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Biology : Evolution, Energy, Information, And Systems

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Biology, the study of life and living organisms, is complex and encompasses a multitude of theories and ideas. In AP Biology, the fourth unit covered was genetics. Chapters 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, and 18 in the textbook, Campbell’s Biology in Focus, not only discusses the four main ideas of biology: evolution, energy, information, and systems, but it also gives examples of each in order to help guide the reader’s understanding of the concepts. The first big idea of AP Biology is: “the process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life.” Chapter 11 in the textbook encompasses this main idea through discussing alleles, phenotypic variations, and genetic variation. An individual receives two alleles, different versions of a…show more content…
Another factor affecting populations is genetic diseases and disorders. X-linked recessive diseases most often occur and males (which they inherited from their mothers), since men only have one X chromosome and a single recessive gene, without a dominant one to cover it up, will be expressed. For example, hemophilia, a condition in which the ability of blood to clot is severely reduced, was spread to royal families across Europe, including the thrones of Britain, Germany, France, Russia, and Spain, after Queen Victoria, a carrier of the disease, passed it to many of her descendants.
The AP Biology course’s second key concept is: “biological systems utilize energy and molecular building blocks to grow, reproduce, and to maintain homeostasis.” One of the main points encompassed in this idea is cell differentiation, the process by which cells specialize in structure and function, highlighted in chapter 16. Cell specialization is an overarching concept that connects to the idea that the coordination of specific events is necessary for the normal development of an organism.
In an embryo, cytoplasmic determinants, material substances in an egg that influence the course of development, receive signals from the environment and neighboring cells. The uneven distribution of these molecules creates gradients that determine the orientation, such as the anterior and posterior, of the organism.
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