Biomedical Risk Factors

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A risk factor can be defined as an individual’s characteristic or exposure which increases the possibility of developing a disease. There are two types of risk factors; behavioural and biomedical risk factors. Behavioural risk factors can be modified by the individuals, while biomedical risk factors are bodily states which arise as a consequence of behavioural risk factors (WHO, 2009). Smoking, alcohol consumption, daily intake of fruits and vegetables are some examples of behavioural risk factors. The examples for biomedical risk factors are obesity, high blood pressure, and dyslipidemia (Freyer-Adam, Gaertner, Tobschall, & John, 2011).

In this study, two main behavioural risk factors were considered to measure health outcomes; smoking
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