Initially, the outbreak and recall was set for bagged spinach on September 14th, but the very next day the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recalled all spinach, both bagged and fresh. The outbreak was due to a suspected E. coli O157:H7. Because of the outbreak, 200 people were reported to the CDC from 26 states as having been infected with that particular outbreak strain; more than 100 of those cases were hospitalized, and 31 of them developed a form of kidney failure, which resulted in the deaths of three people. So why is a breakout that may only have affected 200 people so important and relevant to everyone? It’s important to make sure that our food is edible and not contaminated because in this situation with spinach—according to data collected through surveys— nearly half (48%) of Americans reported that they ate fresh spinach before the recall and did so frequently. There was no complete resolution on the exact cause of E. Coli on spinach, but it was believed to be from samples taken from a stream and from feces of cattle and wild pigs present on ranches, due to a genetic match from those who were infected. For some consumers, the spinach recall may be a type of “signal event” indicating a wider problem that they do not yet see as having been solved. Although spinach is something that is generally looked at as “healthy” to its consumers, it is apparent that there is still a problem with the safety and health concerning fresh produce for the public. This occurrence in 2006 was a turning point for many, realizing that even what should be our freshest food can be contaminated, and that more effort needs to be taken in order to protect the public from
3. Results In this study, out of 112 patients operated for acute non perforated appendicitis, 72 patients were male and 40 patients were female, a ratio of 1.8:1. The patients' age ranged from 18 to 55 years with a mean age of 26 years, the majority of cases lie in a range between 20-32 years. As shown in Table 1, there is no significant difference regarding patients' age, sex, medical comorbidities (diabetes, liver disease, renal disease, hyperlipidemia, heart disease), fever, leukocytosis, radiologic findings (appendiceal diameter, presence of free fluid) or operative time between the two groups.
1. Hospitals vary in their quality performance with different procedures and medical conditions. The lower the hospital’s performance level, the higher the mortality rate and health care costs of the said hospital. It was also mentioned in the report that if the surgeons opted to use laparoscopic approaches to applicable abdominal surgeries, it would reduce the risk of complications, shorten the hospital stays, and subsequently lower the cost for both
Developed in 1941, the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification was created to establish a scoring system (I to V) for the evaluation of a patient’s general health and comorbidities immediately before an operative procedure. (Sakad, Keats) This score is designed to identify surgical patients at risk for developing postoperative complications, taking into account the patient’s physical state and neglecting the surgical impact (type, complexity and urgency). It has been established as a significant predictive factor for perioperative risk assessment, perioperative mortality, complication rates, and postoperative outcomes in multiple surgical specialties. ( Menke, Wolters, Prause, Conners) Similarly, our data shows a good predictability of mortality by the ASA PS. It has undergone slight modification by the ASA to a scale of 6 numbers and is now widely used for preoperative
Hysterectomy is one of the commonest gynecologic procedures, with approximately 600,000 women undergoing this procedure annually in the United States for various indications.9 Robotic-assisted hysterectomy has gained widespread acceptance in many centers since U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval in 2005. Several reports on the early experiences with robotics for endometrial
Knowing Mr Knights previous surgical history is particularly important when preparing for laparoscopic abdominal surgery, this is because previous abdominal surgery creates adhesions. Adhesions are a known risk factor for laparoscopic procedures being converted to open, this risk is increased when the patient is obese (Barleben et al., 2009). There are a number of risk factors that may contribute to the predictability of a laparoscopic procedure converting to open these include patient comorbidities, type of surgery, illness pathology, and surgeon skill (Tekkis, Senagore, & Delaney, 2005).
This investigation was done to see which method offered more of an advantage for specialists who may have just recently finished a training programming in laparoscopy. These researchers observed that the transperitoneal approach, in contrast to its retroperitoneal counterpart, was better for the less-experienced. This is because it offers an operating field that is wider, as well as more anatomical familiarity. Moreover, suturing is more convenient following the
Technologies Role in the Surgical Field Surgery today is a field of study that relays on technology greatly. Whether it's a simple appendectomy, or a 16 hour open heart surgery, Surgeons have to work with technology. Technology has made surgery easier, post op healing faster, and patient care more convenient for both doctors and patients. These listed results have pushed scientist to continue to experiment and push through barriers to increase and further technolgies role in surgical medicine.
4. Dolan JP, Diggs BS, Sheppard BC, Hunter JG. The national mortality burden and significant factors associated with open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy: 1997-2006. Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 2009; 13(12):2292–301.
Laparotomy, which is an operation performed on organs within the abdominal cavity, is a common surgical procedure performed all over the world. Sutures or other materials such as fibrin sealants or staples provide mechanical support for the closed wound healing process. They approximate the wound edges and help to maintain wound closure until the healing process provides sufficient strength for the wound to withstand stress and strain without additional support. However, among the choices surgeons have for closing abdominal fascia, there is currently scant consensus as to the best material or method. For the majority of surgeons, the choice of a suture method in a given instance has mostly been directed by popular practice and opinion, with
Laparoscopic approach results in a shorter length of stay, fewer complications, and lower in-hospital mortality compared to open colectomy.( ) Emergency colectomy is associated with significant morbidity, such as pneumonia (25%), respiratory failure (15%), myocardial infarction (12%) and increased mortality in older persons.[ ] Furthermore a systematic review concluded that resection with primary anastomosis in selected patients is equally safe procedure to Hartmann’s approach.[
The Clavien Classification of Surgical Complications was used to access complications. Power analysis: A total of 200 patients enter this two-treatment parallel-design study. The probability (power) is 94 percent that the study will detect a treatment difference at a two-sided 0.05 significance level. Plan for data analysis:
Interestingly, postoperative morbidity and length of hospitalisation were comparable between both arms with more than 90% discharged home despite the differences in age, comorbidities, nutritional status and physical status. This is in concordant with the recent results published by other authors (1, 23). More importantly, no death was recorded within the 30-day postoperative timeframe. This outcome is much better as compared to previous Asian and Western series (1-3, 20, 21, 23) as indicated in Table 7, which in turn demonstrates that having no postoperative mortality for gastric cancer surgery is possible in a high volume tertiary facility with experienced operators (41).
- Out of 100 patients studied in this research, the age incidence varies between 12 to 47 years, the maximum incidence of acute appendicitis was found in age group of 21- 40 years [56 patients (56%)], followed by age group of ≤20 years [28 patients (28%)] and lastly the age group of 41-60 years [16 patients (16%)]. Regarding to sex, males were more than females [68 males (68%) vs 32 females (32%) with a ratio of 2.13:1 respectively]. Married patients were suffering from acute appendicitis more than single patients (52% vs 48% respectively). Regarding to job, students were the maximum job suffering from acute appendicitis (32%) followed by workers (28) then house wife (20%). Acute appendicitis were more prevalent among
A laparoscopic approach appears to be associated with a reduction in surgical trauma and blood loss. In addition, it is presumable that some of the benefits of minimally invasive surgery such as reduced analgesic requirements, a shorter recovery period and reduced hospital stay (Kuhry, 2005). It has become a forerunner in the quest of improving surgical results by dropping postoperative pain and lessening recovery time. Yet, the use of laparoscopic instruments can be awkward and cumbersome, thus escalating operative time and dropping dexterity, which can