The psychological processes in the article include pain perception, and how we as humans perceive pain, how we react to it, and how we adapt to it. The article explains the pain signaling process and how pain can be amplified. For example, when we get pricked by a needle, a signal from our finger ascends through the spinal cord to reach parts of the brain. From there, we perceive pain, then we form a pain experience. Pain perception can be resulting from several factors such as the frequency of pain input, how sensitive the CNS is, How the body reacts after brain perceives and tries to send information to the injured area. A pain experience is when we have the urge to put a band aid on our injury, or be scared to get pricked from a needle again. However, each pain experience differs from one culture to the other, moreover, one person to the other. The article is conducting a research paper about pain and pain perception in different ethnic groups.
pain is the usual cause for persons to look for treatment. Inadequate pain management can cause delay in healing process. It can also leads to prolonged hospital stay. The acute pain management theory describe how nurse can manage pain with minimal effects from the pharmacological interventions and use of alternative methods of pain management (Good &Moore, 1996) The main factors are in the management of pain are Pharmacological, non-pharmacological, patient participation, education and different interventions. Effective pain management involves the application of non-pharmacological interventions and usage of pain medications. (McEwen & Willis, 2014). The pain management theory deals with management of pain in daily basis. It offers the knowledge about alternate methods in pain
Pain is something that connects all of us. From birth to death we can identify with each other the idea and arguably the perception of it. We all know we experience it, but what is more important is how we all perceive it. It is known that there are people out there with a ‘high’ pain tolerance and there are also ones out there with a ‘low’ pain tolerance, but what is different between them? We also know that pain is an objective response to certain stimuli, there are neurons that sense and feel pain and there are nerve impulses that send these “painful” messages to the brain. What we don’t know is where the pain
What is the role of the senses in the brain's perception of pain? Do people still experience pain with sensory deficits? How does each sense contribute to pain? Perception is the process of using cognitive abilities and experience to process incoming stimuli and formulate a response (Goldstein, 2010). A stimulus is something that occurs in the environment. Any object or situation, can be considered a stimulus or stimuli. Stimulus can be an action that is witnessed, such as with Ivan Pavlov's dogs. Pavlov used a chute to release dog food and facilitate the salivary response. Another example of a stimulus is a flying bird. The flying bird is perceived by the senses and our cognitive processes are what enable people to recognize
Physical wellbeing is a high priority in recent health and social care provision. The significance of endorsing health and wellbeing is due to the dramatically rising trend of morbidity and mortality from health problem, illness and chronic disease. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO) “health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity.” (WHO, 1948). This explains that, health programs should not alone diagnose and treat pathological illness, but should enforce and promote maximum wellbeing of individuals such as using the biopsychosocial perspective on health and illness. In this essay, I will introduce a few examples in the field of psychological factors. However, since there are numerous of psychological factors that influences health, I will be focusing in on pain and addiction by showing how these factors determines biological, social and cognitive aspect of an individual physical health.
Pain is not only defined as a sensation or a physical awareness, but also entails perception. Moreover, pain is an unpleasant and an uncomfortable emotion that is transferred to the brain by sensory neurons. There are various kinds of pain and how one perceives them is varied as well. Certain parts of the brain also play a key role in how one feels pain such as the parietal lobe, which is involved in interpreting pain while the hypothalamus is responsible for the response to pain one has. Although some believe pain is just a physical awareness and is in the body, pain is all in one’s mind because the perception of pain and the emotion that controls its intensity differs in individuals and when pain itself is administered to the body, the brain determines the emotions one attaches to each painful experience.
The International Association for the Study of Pain defines pain as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage” (1979). Pain is actually the culprit behind warranting a visit to a physician office for many people (Besson, 1999). Notoriously unpleasant, pain could also pose a threat as both a psychological and economic burden (Phillips, 2006). Sometimes pain does happen without any damage of tissue or any likely diseased state. The reasons for such pain are poorly understood and the term used to describe such type of pain is “psychogenic pain”. Also, the loss of productivity and daily activity due to pain is also significant. Pain engulfs a trillion dollars of GDP for lost work time and disability payments (Melnikova, 2010). Untreated pain not only impacts a person suffering from pain but also impacts their whole family. A person’s quality of life is negatively impacted by pain and it diminishes their ability to concentrate, work, exercise, socialize, perform daily routines, and sleep. All of these negative impacts ultimately lead to much more severe behavioral effects such as depression, aggression, mood alterations, isolation, and loss of self-esteem, which pose a great threat to human society.
Chronic Pain is an interesting problem in society today. The exact cause of Chronic Pain is not the same in every patient. In fact most patients present with different symptoms and associated pathologies, such as the strong link with depression. Treatment of Chronic Pain is often performed a single practitioner whether that be a Medical Doctor, Chiropractor, Nutritionist, or an alternative health care professional. Chronic Pain is often extremely complex, because of this treatment needs to be multidimensional. Effective care of Chronic Pain requires the collective cooperation of health care professionals
The biomedical model of health fails to comprise factors such social or environment that relate or associate with illness and also it views very little about the individual`s wellbeing history such as medical history or feelings. Holistically, a person`s well-being doesn’t not depend on physically states only and the biomedical model of health believe that a person is ill or has broken (leg or arm), they can be fixed which would lead to health restoration along with that, this model doesn’t consider that the person have or will be in pain and that pain can lead to many. Through this model, there are high chances of diagnosing wrong illnesses. For example: an individual might repine about back pain and then with biomedical model method (tests), the back might appear ok, but the history of something such insomnia, depression or others would not be viewed.
The proper way to ensure that this is not a constant problem is to make sure that initial pain assessments as well as re-assessments are done in a timely manner. It seems as though the initial pain assessment was completed using the pain scale but the re-assessment was not complete and documented in the proper amount of time. In order to ensure proper documentation of the re-assessment once the first pain assessment has been completed and an intervention has properly been administered, the first action step will be to make sure that the reassessment is complete within one hour of pain intervention. With electronic mars it is easy to build in a recheck into the system to alert the nurse that a reassessment is needed once the pain medication has been administered to the patient. When a pain intervention is done, a flag will come up to remind the nurse taking care of the patient that a reassessment is due. This will also resolve the issue on the tracer audit of how does the nurse know the intervention worked. Another issue on the audit was if no pain intervention was done what was the reason for it not being done.
Conceptual analysis is integral in understanding nursing theory. According to Walker and Avant (1995), concept analysis allows nursing scholars to examine the attributes or characteristics of a concept. It can be used to evaluate a nursing theory and allows for examination of concepts for relevance and fit within the theory. The phenomena of pain will be discussed in this paper and how it relates to the comfort theory.
‘Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage’ (International association for the study of pain 2014). Pain can be made up of complex and subjective experiences. The experience of pain is highly personal and private, and can not be directly observed or measured from one person to the next (Mac Lellan 2006). According to the agency for health care policy and research 1992, an individuals self-report of pain is the most reliable indicator of its presence. This is also supported by Mc Caffery’s definition in 1972, when he said ‘Pain is whatever the experiencing patient says it is, existing whenever he says it does’.
According to John Hopkins Medicine (n.d.), pain is an uncomfortable feeling that tells you something may be wrong. It can be fixed, throbbing, stabbing, aching, pinching, or described in many other ways. Pain is categorized as either acute or chronic. Acute pain is usually severe and brief, and is often a signal that your body has been injured. Chronic pain can vary from mild to severe and is there for long periods of time (John Hopkins Medicine, n.d). This paper will discuss a scenario that entails which person is experiencing the most pain, how two people can have the same procedure experience different levels of pain, factors that contribute to each person’s pain level, and two complementary/alternative methods of pain control.
The biomedical model focuses on the physical or biological aspects of disease and illness. It is more common in western countries of how health care professionals diagnosis and treat patients.The bio-medical use scientific and technological advances to make a cure for many diseases. The issue with the biomedical model is the lack of emphasis on the social, cultural, and other factors that can influence health. There is research supporting the idea that poverty, ethnicity, age, gender, and disability can impact healthcare treatments.However. since the biomedical model ignores this, it causes many people not to have a health care intervention that is relevant to them. The biomedical model use of controlled trials and biomedical evidence give u the best information on the cause of illness or disease. For a medical professional this can be very helpful when working with people with different diseases. Having a better understanding how a disease progress, and how it can affect someone can be useful when coming up with prevention treatments. The information from these controlled trials will be implied to make the best plan of care for a patient. Without the bio-medical model, the advancement in medical treatment will be very slow. The bio-medical model helps to support the professionals with the tools, and information they need to give better treatment to their patient, leading to a better health.However, the biomedical model may not always be beneficial for the patient. This
The most common reason that people seek medical care is pain, and pain is the leading cause of disability (Peterson & Bredow, 2013, p. 51; National Institute of Health, 2010). Pain is such an important topic in healthcare that the United States congress “identified 2000 to 2010 as the Decade of Pain Control and Research” (Brunner L. S., et al., 2010, p. 231). Unfortunatelly, patients are reporting a small increase in satisfaction with the pain management while in the hospital (Bernhofer, 2011). Pain assessment and treatment can be complex since nurses do not have a tool to quantify it. Pain is considered the fifth vital sign, however, we do not have numbers to guide our interventions. Pain is a subjective expirience that cannot be shared easily. Since nurses spend more time with patients in pain than any other healthcare provider, nurses must have a clear understanding of the concept of pain (Brunner, et al., 2010). Concept analysis’ main objective is to clarify ideas, to enhance critical thinking, and to promote communication (Rodgers & Knafl, 2000). This paper will examine the concept of pain using Wilson’s Steps of Concept Analysis (Rodgers & Knafl, 2000).