Bipolar And Related Disorders : Symptoms And Treatment Of Bipolar Disorder

1669 WordsJun 20, 20167 Pages
Bipolar and related disorders are lifelong perplexing mental illnesses that are difficult to diagnose and treat. Bipolar illness is a chronic shifting of extreme euphoria (mania) and deep sadness or hopelessness (depressive) episodes, complicated by comorbidities and the potential for poor health outcomes. The occurrence of bipolar disorder (BD) throughout the adult population in the United States is reported to be approximately 5.7 million people each year, with a lifetime prevalence of 3.9 percent. (National Institute of Mental Health) The DSM-5 classifications of bipolar and related disorders include four categories. Bipolar Disorder I is characterized by predominately manic episodes. Bipolar II is predominately depressive. Cyclothymic Disorder consists of frequent periods of both hypomania and depression, yet do not meet the criteria for either a type I or II BD diagnosis. Lastly, Unspecified Bipolar and related disorders are defined by bipolar symptoms that do not match the three categories above. Diagnosis of a manic episode includes three or more of the following symptoms that lasts one week or more: inflated self-esteem, decreased need for sleep, pressured talk, flight of ideas, distractibility, increase of goal directed activities, and excessive involvement in activities the produce negative consequences. Depressive episodes include fatigue, hypersomnia or insomnia, low self-esteem, poor concentration, increased or decreased appetite, psychomotor agitation or
Open Document