Bipolar Disorder : A Psychological Mood Disorder

1258 Words Oct 30th, 2016 6 Pages
Bipolar disorder is diagnosed as a psychological mood disorder. Genetic factors and social environment are both believed to be the possible causes in developing the disorder. The average age of onset is 25 years old, however, symptoms can first start appearing in the late teen years and into the young adult years, however 75% of first episodes occur between 12 and 30 years old. Bipolar disorder affects 2.6 percent of American adults. Children who have an immediate family member such as a sibling or a parent with the disorder will have a higher risk of acquiring the disorder. In addition, adults who suffered emotional abuse in childhood also have an increased risk. (Glynn Ph.D., Kangas & Pickett, Ph.D., 2014; O 'Connell, 2016; Troubled childhood may boost bipolar risk: Study, 2016).
In bipolar disorder the structure and chemistry of the brain have abnormal levels of chemicals, known as neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters are chemicals that act as messengers to communicate with neurons in the brain, when neurotransmitters do not function correctly, they are unable to communicate properly with the neurons resulting in chemical levels that are too high or too low. An imbalance of chemical levels of melatonin, norepinephrine, (GABA) gamma-amino butyric acid, cortisol, glutamate, dopamine, and serotonin are neurotransmitters and hormones that are the contributing factors involved in Bipolar disorder.
There are also significant structural differences in the brain of those who…
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