Bipolar Disorder And Other Psychotic Disorders

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According to Lindamer et al. (2012), individuals with schizophrenia had 3 times the odds of being categorized as a high utilizer. Bipolar disorder and other psychotic disorders increased the odds of being a high utilizer by 90% (Lindamer et al., 2012). Being White, younger, female, homeless, and having Medicaid insurance also increased the odds for being a high utilizer in this sample. Similarly, Pasic et al. (2005) noted that high utilizers were more likely to be homeless, have developmental delays, have a history of voluntary and involuntary hospitalizations, have personality disorders, unreliable social support and a history of incarceration and detoxification.
Pasic et al. (2005) identified two different types of high utilizers:
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Tafalla, Salvador-Carulla, Saiz-Ruiz, Diez, & Cordero (2010) found that bipolar disorder was the primary reason for admission to a general hospital for medical treatment in 93% of the cases involved in the sample.
2. Mental Illness
Schmutte et al. (2009) observed that psychotic disorder and unemployment (at the time of the index hospitalization) were independently associated with higher inpatient utilization for the following 2 years. According to Schmutte et al. (2009), the number of hospitalizations in the 2 years prior predicted the number of readmissions after the index hospitalization.
Schmutte et al. (2009) concluded that patients diagnosed as having a psychotic disorder have significantly more inpatient admissions than those with “other” disorders. According to Hunter, Yoon, Blonigen, Asch, & Zulman (2015), individuals with severe mental illness and substance abuse disorders were younger and had fewer chronic medical conditions. The same individuals also had a greater proportion of their healthcare costs generated by mental healthcare (41%).
3. Cost
a. Observed costs for individuals with severe mental illness and high utilization of services
Chi et al. (2016) discovered that for all psychiatric medical services between 2001 and 2008, the relapse group had a higher frequency of care and cost than the non-relapse group. The relapse group incurred $19,033, which was 5.79 times higher than the non-relapse group, and 482.19
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