Bipolar Disorder ( Bd )

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Bipolar disorder (BD), or manic depression, is one of the oldest mental illnesses, first being documented in 1st Century Greece by Aretaeus of Cappadocia. He first noted the link between mania and depression that is so characteristic of the disease. As the years progressed the disease changed names from “mania” and “melancholia” during Ancient Greece and Rome, to “manico-melancolicus” in the 17th century, “lafolie circulaire” in 1851, and now, finally, “bipolar” as defined by the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) in 1980. Bipolar disorder affects 2.3 million Americans, or 1.2% of the population (Gambaccini, 2012). It is equally represented in men and women and among all races,…show more content…
The first paper, Large-scale genome-wide association analysis of bipolar disorder identifies a new susceptibility locus near ODZ4, by Sklar et al., “combined genome-wide association (GWAS) analysis of 7,481 individuals affected with bipolar disorder and 9,250 control individuals within the Psychiatric Genomewide Association Study Consortium Bipolar Disorder group (PGC-BD)” (2011). In order to achieve this, they used a variety of methods including a genome wide association analysis (GWAS), replication study, and a pathway analysis. For the GWAS they used 16,731 BD samples from multiple overlapping case and control studies facilitated by the Psychiatric Genome-wide Association Study Consortium (PGC) and 47,035 individuals for the replication sample. After receiving the primary genotype and phenotype data for all of the samples, they combined them into a datasheet with 7,481 unique cases and 9,250 unique controls selected. The sample was broken down with 84% BD type 1, 11% BD type 2, 4% schizoaffective disorder bipolar type, and 1% other bipolar diagnosis. They used 46,234 SNP’s, or single nucleotide polymorphisms, to directly genotype all 11 groups and 1,016,924 NPs were genotyped for 9 of the groups. SNPs are a single nucleotide that is changed that can result in a disease by altering a gene’s function. They then used a logistic regression of the case statuses on the dosages of SNPs and determined that
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