There are four types of mood episodes in bipolar disorder: mania, hypomania, depression, and mixed episodes. Each mood episode comes with a series of symptoms. In the manic phase of bipolar disorder, feelings of increased energy and extreme happiness are the most common. People who are experiencing a manic episode often cannot stop talking, their talking is fast and very hard to understand, they sleep very little, and are very hyperactive. They feel they are invincible and can do anything in the world. Hypomania is a less severe type of mania.
The terms ‘manic–depressive illness’ and ‘bipolar disorder’ are comparatively recent, and date back from the 1950s and 1980s respectively. The term ‘bipolar disorder’ (or ‘bipolar affective disorder’) is thought to be less stigmatizing than the older term ‘manic–depressive illness’, and so the former has largely superseded the latter. However, some psychiatrists and some people with bipolar disorder still prefer the term ‘manic–depressive illness’ because they feel that it reflects thenature of the disorder more accurately.
Bipolar Disorder Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness affects about 1.2 percent of the U.S. population (8). It is defined by fluctuating states of depression and mania throughout ones life. Those who are depressed may be restless, irritable, have slowed thinking or speech, decreased sexual activity, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, suicidal thoughts as well as other changes. Those in a manic state may have increased activity or energy, more thoughts and faster thinking, grandiose thoughts, decreased sleep and need for sleep, increased sexual activity, elated mood, irritable mood, as well as other symptoms. Mixed state is when both depression and mania are exhibited at the same time in a cycle. Rapid cycling
Bipolar Disorder effect a vast majority of society; unfortunately, a large number of people are unaware that they are Bipolar. They simple think that it is just the ups and downs of everyday life. There is also a number of people who have been misdiagnosed with Bipolar Disorder who are not and are being treat for a disease they do not have. Most likely they have some other disorder but the doctor did not take the time to accurately diagnose their patient. For instance, my grandmother on my father’s side has been diagnosed with Bipolar. Previous to this research paper the only knowledge I had of Bipolar was that Bipolar patients suffer from horrible mood swings. So I decided to do my research on Bipolar so I could understand my grandmother better. Shockingly, I came to the conclusion that there is a good chance my grandmother has been misdiagnosed.
Bipolar Disorder Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder known for severe persistent mood instabilities between mania and depression, . It causes unusual changes in mood, energy, and activity levels which makes ability to perform daily tasks very hard. (Concepts Advisory Panel [CAP], 2015). BPD affects more than 2.3 million adult Americans, or 1% of the population. (Guo, Patel, Li, & Keck 2010). There are four basic types of bipolar spectrum; All of them involve clear change in the mood energy, and activity levels (CAP,2015). These mood incidences’ ranges from periods of extremely high and energized behavior known as Manic episodes to very sad, or hopeless periods known as depressive episodes. Bipolar I disorder, the client has at least one episode of manic followed by major depression. Bipolar II disorder, the client has one or more hypomanic and major depressive episodes, the other not so severe and less diagnoses type of Bipolar is chronic mood disorder that lasts more two years with combination of hypomania and dysthymia. (CAP,2015). This paper will go into, Bipolar I, Manic episodes, the pathophysiology, Sign and symptoms, treatments, comorbidity, nursing intervention and nursing and patient therapeutic relationship.
Bipolar disorder also known as manic depression has always been a mystery since the 16th century. History has shown that it can appear in almost everyone. Bipolar disorder causes mood swings in energy, thinking, and other behavior. Having a bipolar disorder can be very disabling (Kapczinski). A study was evaluated and about 1.3% of the U.S population of people suffers from bipolar disorder. Stressors and environmental influences can trigger and cause a person to go through numerous episodes. Bipolar disorder is characterized according to the severity of the stages. According to Kapczinski, there are four different stages that a person with bipolar disorder can experience. The prognosis of a disorder is different in each particular patient
Bipolar Disorder and the "War on Drugs" Bipolar disorder, also known as, "manic-depressive illness," is a brain disorder that results in unusual shifts in a person's mood, energy, and ability to function. More than two million American adults (or, about one per cent of the population aged eighteen and older in any given year) are afflicted by this affective disorder (1). Yet, because it cannot be revealed by a blood test or other physiological means, patients may suffer for years before it is properly diagnosed and treated. Fortunately, once one is diagnosed with bipolar disorder, the acute symptoms of the disease can be effectively mitigated by lithium and certain anticonvulsant drugs, the most popular being Depakote (also known as
Bipolar disorder, which is commonly referred to as manic-depressive illness, is a disorder within the brain that causes abnormal changes in mood, energy levels, and activity levels. People of any ethnicity can have bipolar disorder, although bipolar disorder is more prevalent in the U.S. than any other country (see figure 1). Bipolar disorder, as
Bipolar Bipolar is a mental disorder which is known for a brain disorder that causes constant changing of moods, activity levels, and the ability to carry out every day activities, relationships with family and friends and possibly workplace functioning. The areas that the brain is affected by bipolar is the frontal and temporal lobes of the forebrain, the prefrontal cortex, the basal ganglia, and parts of the limbic system (Bressert, 2007). The hippocampus may also play a role in bipolar disorder, as structural changes to this area of the brain have been associated with this disorder in some individuals. It is also known by its older name “manic depression” (Bressert, 2007). A manic episode is described to be like feelings of intensified energy levels, creativity, and euphoria are common. People that experience a manic episodes talk a mile a minute, hardly sleeps, and are hyperactive; they may also feel that they’re all-powerful, invincible, or destined for the best (Bressert, 2007). Bipolar is described as an emotional roller coaster. A person that is diagnosed with bipolar will experience highs that are known as manic episodes and lows that are known as depression (Bressert, 2007). These periods have different lengths of time, they can last for a few hours or ranging days or possibly even longer; they can last up to a few weeks up to months at one given time. This disorder is a long term and chronic condition with a variety of treatments.
This research was conducted to determine the impact of pharmacological treatment and whether electroconvulsive therapy as an alternative to patients whose suicidal symptoms did not improve with the use of medication treatment. During this experiment, researchers observed if there were any pharmacotherapy treatments that increased the risk for rehospitalization or suicide with the use of electroconvulsive therapy. Researchers measured factors such as: rehospitalization of patients, suicide attempts, or death. In total, the study showed the effectiveness of ECT alone and ECT along with pharmacotherapy on patients that have not shown effect with pharmacotherapy itself.
Elation is probably the most obvious component, and it is often misplaced and without any real reason for being in this mood. Manic episodes bring with them extreme self-confidence and energy to meet people and engage in all sorts of activities and adventures. It is not uncommon to be unable to understand what a person in a manic state is saying because they are talking loud and fast, and can jump from one subject to the next without any provocation or knowing why. Irritability and lack of attention span are also trademarks of this state. In its most extreme, mania can also bring about violence and rage from the individual. During this period the sufferer often enrolls themselves in many activities or responsibilities that they cannot fulfill after the mania subsides, lending to further problems even after the episode has subsided (Encyclopedia Britannica, 23:847).
Bipolar disorder is a long-term mental illness that is formerly called manic depression. There are many types and episodes of bipolar disorder. The three main types of bipolar disorder are Bipolar I disorder, Bipolar II disorder, and Cyclothymic disorder. The 3 main episodes of bipolar disorder are Manic Episode, Major Depressive Episode, and Hypo manic Episode. There are many ways to treat the bipolar disorder, including medicine, counseling, and alternative medicine. mood swings, (mania, hypomania, or depression). Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, and affects the brain and causes shifts in a person's mood and ability to function
There are many factors that influence the treatment outcomes of individuals experiencing bipolar disorder. Demographic variables such as gender, socioeconomic status, and ex-offender status may have an impact on an individual’s overall perspective towards mental health, thus affecting the willingness to seek treatment and overall outcomes. Recent research examined the
Bipolar Disorder also known as Manic Depressive Illness involves outstanding mood swings. The individual has periods of depression, and periods when they feel either unusually good or pressured and irritable. It affects 1-2% of the population. Genetics plays a significant role. About 15% of children with one bipolar parent develop the disorder.
Overview of Bipolar Disorder Bipolar disorder, or manic depressive disorder, is a disorder characterized by extreme mood changes. People with this disorder undergo unusual shifts in his or her mood, activity levels, energy and the ability to carry out daily activities (National Institute of Mental Health, n.d.). A person can go from being very outgoing and energetic to feeling irritated and worthless over a period of a few days, months, or even years. People with bipolar disorder experience “mood episodes”, represented by a drastic change in a person’s unusual mood or behavior (National Institute of Mental Health, n.d.). A manic episode he or she may experience is overexcited and overly joyful; however, someone in a