Bipolar Disorder ( Bipolar ) Essay

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Bipolar Disorder or manic-depressive disorder is a disorder characterized by highs, manias, and lows, depressions, and can therefore be easily distinguished from unipolar depression, a major depressive disorder in DSM-5, by the presence of manic or hypomanic episodes (Miklowitz & Gitlin, 2014). Bipolar disorder is generally an episodic, lifelong illness with a variable course (American Psychiatric Association, 2010). There are two classifications of bipolar disorder; bipolar I disorder and bipolar II disorder. If the episodes are primarily manic but there has been at least one depressive episode, the diagnosis is bipolar I disorder (Early, 2009). If the episodes are primarily depressed but there has been at least one episode of hypomania, increased mood that is more euphoric than normal but not quite manic, the diagnosis is bipolar II disorder (Early, 2009). A manic episode is characterized by an abnormality of mood that is euphoric, expansive, and elevated or irritable with increased energy, along with signs and symptoms such as inflated self-esteem or grandiosity, decreased need for sleep. Pressure of speech or being extremely talkative, racing thoughts or flight of ideas, distractibility, an increase in goal-directed behavior, agitation, poor judgment and impulsive decision making are more signs and symptoms of a manic episode. A manic episode can result in unwise and potentially dangerous behavior. Destructive behaviors can often occur with spending money, sexual
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